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05MAPUTO149 2005-02-01 09:11:00 UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Embassy Maputo
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					  UNCLAS MAPUTO 000149 

E.O. 12958: N/A

1. (SBU) Consular Fraud Summary: Mozambique's porous
borders, underpaid and ill-equipped border security forces,
and lack of technological infrastructure make it an inviting
transit country for mala fide travelers, immigrant smugglers
and immigrant traffickers. Mozambican passports and
residency permits can be easily obtained through the payment
of bribes to immigration officials, and are also available
through other illegal channels. It is difficult for Post to
obtain detailed information or statistics on immigrant
smuggling and trafficking from Mozambican officials as often
times written records are not kept, or information is
inadequately recorded. Post has also encountered a general
unwillingness on the part of the Mozambican government to
share immigration fraud-related information that may later
implicate immigration or police officials. End Summary.

2. (U) Country Conditions: Twice the size of California with
over 1700 miles of extended coastline, Mozambique has
geography that plays an important political and economic
role. A Portuguese colony until gaining independence in
1975, Mozambique is defined by three east-west corridors:
towards South Africa in the south; Zimbabwe in the center;
and Malawi/Zambia in the north. Approximately 20% of the
population is Muslim, a percentage concentrated primarily in
the northern provinces. Despite steady economic development
since the end of the devastating civil war in 1992,
Mozambique remains one of the world's poorest countries with
more than 40% of its citizens surviving on less than $1 per
day. Corruption is one of the paramount problems facing the
democratic development of Mozambique, and contributes
significantly to the growing problem of immigrant smuggling
and trafficking. The majority of people being smuggled or
trafficked are bound for South Africa, but some groups -
most recently, Somalis -- have also been known to travel
through Mozambique to South Africa, and on to Brazil, with a
view to gaining access to the U.S. through the Western
Hemisphere. Mozambique is also battling a growing HIV/AIDS
problem, with an infection rate estimated at approximately
15% of adults.

3. (SBU) Visa Fraud: Imposter fraud is the most frequently
encountered type of fraud in Maputo. Mozambican nationality
and identity documents (as well as residency permits) are
easily obtained on either the black market, or by bribing
immigration officials. Third-country national applicants
posing as Mozambican citizens, and third-country national
applicants presenting Mozambican residency permits must be
thoroughly scrutinized by interviewing consular officers to
assess Portuguese language ability, familiarity with the
country and culture, and economic ties. Approximately 22%
of NIV applicants are third-country nationals. The countries
representing the largest number of applicants, beginning
with the most prevalent, are Nigeria, South Africa, Guinea,
Pakistan, India, Brazil, Congo, and Tanzania. Post has also
processed applications for nationals of China, Cuba, and
Lebanon in the last six months. Document fraud is less
prevalent but more difficult to detect as official documents
often lack uniformity and/or security features, and even
legitimate documents are often of poor quality - printed
with dot matrix printers or handwritten.

4. (SBU)ACS Fraud: Incidents of ACS fraud are rare, although
in the last year, Post has seen several cases of Lebanese
nationals, who are naturalized U.S. citizens, applying for
U.S. citizenship for their children. In each case, the
applicant father has insisted he meets the physical presence
requirements for transmission, but has been unable to
provide adequate evidence. One man presented 1040 tax forms
filled out by hand and backdated to 1986 and 1987.