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2005-03-04 17:47:00
Embassy Dublin
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						UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 12 DUBLIN 000276 




E.O. 12958: N/A

REF: 04 STATE 273089





E.O. 12958: N/A

REF: 04 STATE 273089

1. (SBU) Summary: Once a poor nation characterized by large
scale emigration, Ireland is now economically prosperous and
an attractive destination for thousands of asylum and
job-seekers. The unprecedented flow of people into Ireland
has prompted the Government to address issues relating to
border control, residency rights, labor standards, and social
inclusion. As part of these efforts, the Government has made
good faith efforts to investigate trafficking-in-persons
cases and to improve its understanding of the problem through
training and participation in international conferences.
Current statistics and evidence, however, do not indicate
that trafficking is a present danger. The most reliable NGOs
in Ireland believe that there were 14 cases or fewer of
trafficking in the last year.

2. (SBU) Post has engaged the Irish Government at the
highest level to stress Ireland's role in fighting European
and global trafficking. We also have urged the Government to
develop a national action plan, to promote awareness through
media campaigns, and to form an interagency task force to
conduct investigations. The Ambassador, DCM, POL/ECON chief,
and Embassy political, economic, and consular officers
discussed trafficking with the Departments of Foreign Affairs
and Justice, Health Boards, the Immigration Bureau, and local
police as well as numerous NGOs. Based on these many
in-depth discussions, we have concluded that there is
insufficient evidence to warrant the inclusion of Ireland in
the 2005 TIPS report. Post will continue to urge the GOI and
NGOs to improve cooperation to identify, assess, and
prosecute cases of trafficking. End Summary.

3. (SBU) The following items are keyed off reftel.

I. Overview of a country's activities to eliminate
trafficking in persons:

--A. Is the country a country of origin, transit or
destination for international trafficked men, women, or

children? Specify numbers for each group. Does the
trafficking occur within the country's borders? Does it
occur in territory outside of the government's control (e.g.
in a civil war situation)? Are any estimates or reliable
numbers available as to the extent or magnitude of the
problem? Please include any numbers of victims. What is
(are) the source(s) of available information on trafficking
in persons? How reliable are the numbers and these sources?
Are certain groups of persons more at risk of being
trafficked (e.g. women and children, boys versus girls,
certain ethnic groups, refugees, etc.)?

In September 2004, the national police (Garda) and the Police
Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) issued a joint report on
organized crime throughout the island (the Republic of
Ireland and the UK area of Northern Ireland), including
results of their investigation into trafficking. The police
services concluded that there is no indication of a present
danger of human trafficking, but there are clear indications
of smuggling, most typically from Northern Ireland to the
Republic of Ireland, and violations of labor and immigration
law. Over the past year, the Garda National Immigration
Bureau (GNIB) and local Detective Units investigated several
suspected instances of trafficking. In December 2004, Dublin
courts ruled for conviction in one of the first trafficking
case in the country. In January 2005, the GNIB charged
another defendant with trafficking, and the national police
report that investigations into other charges of trafficking
are ongoing. Last year also saw the launch of Operation
Quest, a major operation in which police raided lap-dance
clubs across the country. Operation Quest was launched
explicitly because of allegations of trafficking in the
industry, but police found no evidence of trafficking. The
women were interviewed under protected conditions and with
interpreters. All claimed to be working in such clubs by
choice. Many remained in contact with police subsequently,
but none alleged trafficking.

The government's conclusion that trafficking is not currently
a major problem in Ireland is echoed by the most reliable
NGOs, who say that there were 14 cases of trafficking or
fewer in the last year. These NGOs say that most situations
they see involve violations of labor and immigration law, but
not trafficking. A few NGO's cite a larger number of cases
but cannot substantiate their claims. Under Irish law,
"trafficking" encompasses both smuggling and trafficking; the
NGOs citing large numbers of cases may be using this broad
definition. Despite repeated meetings with embassy officers,
those alleging a higher number of cases were not able to
substantiate their claims.

In the view of government and NGOs, rapid economic growth has
made Ireland a magnet for immigration, both legal and
illegal. There is common agreement that a close eye needs to
be kept on certain sectors to ensure they remain free of
trafficking. Areas of concern include the sex industry,
agriculture, and domestic help. In March 2005, the
government announced plans to consolidate all visa, work
permit and immigration matters in one agency.

--B. Where are the persons trafficked from? Where are the
persons trafficked to?

Police confirm that the women they talked to during Operation
Quest tended to be on a European circuit. They usually stay
in one location for six to nine months before circulating to
another European country. They indicated that they traveled
voluntarily. According to NGOs and police, the vast majority
of smuggling into Ireland involves people from Eastern
Europe. To a lesser extent, people travel from Africa, South
America and Asia. The majority enter Ireland from Northern
Ireland, according to NGO and government sources. Ireland is
one of the only EU countries not to restrict workers from the
10 new EU members, and low-end service industries have become
dependent on immigrant workers. NGOs believe this makes
Ireland a magnet for people from these countries. However,
they also say the government is trying to encourage employers
to hire legal workers from the 10 new Member States in an
effort to cut down on illegal immigration.

--C. Have there been any changes in the direction or extent
of trafficking?

The direction and extent of alleged trafficking remain
constant. Most concerns about trafficking revolve around the
sex industry. The government and NGOs believe smuggling is
occurring in the agricultural and domestic services
industries, and that these industries might become vulnerable
to trafficking.

--D. Are any efforts or surveys planned or underway to
document the extent and nature of trafficking in the country?
Is any additional information available from such reports or
surveys that was not available last year?

In September 2004, the Garda and Police Service of Northern
Ireland published a joint study into organized crime on the
island, including trafficking. The two police services
concluded that was no evidence of trafficking, but there are
indications of smuggling.

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) conducted
research on possible child trafficking in Ireland that was
published in 2004, based on research from 2003. The study,
Trafficking in Unaccompanied Minors in Ireland, was the first
of its kind and was co-funded by the Irish Department of
Justice, Equality and Law and coordinated by IOM Dublin and
Paris. The study's objectives were to examine the legal
framework in Ireland for addressing the prosecution of
perpetrators of trafficking in minors, to describe the
institutions and services for the protection of unaccompanied
minors, and to identify policy responses being implemented to
combat trafficking in children and protect victims. The
report found that Ireland has a "relatively modern and
comprehensive legal framework in place to prosecute suspected
trafficking in children... While there was evidence of
extensive resources applied to trafficking investigations,
this has not manifested itself in successful prosecutions."
The study found that approximately 10% of unaccompanied
minors coming into Ireland are the subject of investigation
in relation to criminal trafficking or smuggling by adults.
As for the sex industry, the report noted that, "Compared
with other European capital cities, the sex industry in
Ireland is relatively new and small. There is no tradition
of tolerance zones." It also noted that Ireland's economic
growth and influx of immigrants makes it "fertile for the
development of contemporary trafficking in human beings for
both labour and sexual exploitation."

In 2004, the Migrant Rights Centre Ireland published a report
highlighting the vulnerability of non-national women employed
in private homes in Ireland. The report called on the
government to establish a section within the Labour
Inspectorate to investigate and monitor conditions among
domestic workers.

--E. If the country is a destination point for trafficked
victims: What kind of conditions are the victims trafficked
into? Are they forced to work in sweatshops, agriculture,
restaurants, construction sites, prostitution, nude dancing,
domestic servitude, begging, or other forms of labor,
exploitation, or services? What methods are used to ensure
their compliance? Are the victims subject to violence,
threats, withholding of their documents, debt bondage, etc.?

NGOs reported women usually work in the sex industry either
as prostitutes or lap dancers, and often live in brothels or
apartments controlled by traffickers. The country is not a
destination point for trafficked victims on any major scale.
As cited earlier, the women interviewed in Operation Quest
denied that they had been coerced to work in the lap-dance
clubs that employed them. In the course of their regular
work, police and immigration officials refer women in need to
social services and NGOs.

NGOs report that women are often approached by people they
know (boyfriend, relative, etc.) and brought into the country
on fraudulent grounds. NGOs, Health Board members and other
GOI officials suspect abuse of the asylum policy, such that
an individual will claim asylum and receive social welfare
benefits only to disappear during proceedings.

The Government and NGOs report that English language schools
are sometimes used as fronts for bringing in persons for
illegal labor. NGOs say that ministries worked closely with
them to develop new regulations. In April 2005, the GOI
plans to implement a new regulation requiring that foreign
students must be enrolled in a Department of Education
recognized course for one year in order to be qualified to
work. Currently, students may work up to twenty hours a week
from the time they arrive. This new law, which is still
undergoing Government review, is a response to investigations
revealing large numbers of students enrolled, but not
attending English language classes.

In 2004, 52 children disappeared from the care of the East
Coast Area Health Board. Based on their investigations,
Irish police and DoJ officials believe that these represent
cases of smuggling with the purpose of reunifying recently
arrived families and for employment opportunities, not
trafficking. The Garda National Immigration Bureau
investigation unit, which judges that the majority of these
cases involve persons 16-25 years old who claim to be
substantially younger, has set children as its top priority.
NGOs share the governments concern about the vulnerability of
these children.

--F. If the country is a country of origin: Which
populations are targeted by the traffickers? Who are the
traffickers? What methods are used to approach victims? (Are
they offered lucrative jobs, sold by their families,
approached by friends of friends, etc.?) What methods are
used to move the victims (e.g., are false documents being

There is no evidence that Ireland is a country of origin for

--G. Is there political will at the highest levels of
government to combat trafficking in persons? Is the
government making a good faith effort to seriously address
trafficking? Is there a willingness to take action against
government officials linked to TIP? In broad terms, what
resources is the host government devoting to combating
trafficking in persons (in terms of prevention, protection,

The Prime Minister and Justice Minister have spoken publicly
and privately about the need to deter trafficking. In
December 2004, the Minister of State for Development referred
to trafficking as "a particularly despicable violation of
human rights." He pledged that Ireland would develop a
National Report on trafficking for the Organization for
Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). In December
2004, Ireland hosted its Sixth Annual NGO Forum on Human
Rights, which focused in part on trafficking. At the 2004
UN General Assembly and at the Commission for Human Rights,
Ireland co-sponsored resolutions on trafficking in women and

Significantly, Ireland used its EU presidency in the first
half of 2004 to focus more attention on women, including
trafficking. Ireland hosted a Conference on Violence Against
Women (May 2004), which focused on trafficking and other
forms of violence. As EU president, it also hosted a
Conference on Gender Equality (May 2004) and one on Gender
Mainstreaming (April 2005).

As noted earlier, Operation Quest was a national police
investigation into possible trafficking, smuggling, and
exploitation of workers in lap dance clubs. 400 police
officers were engaged; all had had training in advance,
including from NGOs. The police raided brothels across the
country; 127 persons from 27 countries were interviewed;
translators were present as needed. Police expected to find
some instances of trafficking and had in place safe houses to
which to transfer the women immediately and social services
and NGOs on alert. No evidence of trafficking was found.
Many of the women maintained contact with the police after
the raid; none ever alleged trafficking or sought police
protection or help returning home.

NGOs interviewed by post report that the GOI is making good
faith efforts to deter trafficking, although they would like
to see the government do more to raise public awareness,
strengthen anti-trafficking legislation, and provide for
victim support.

--H. Do governmental authorities or individual members of
government forces facilitate or condone trafficking, or are
they otherwise complicit in such activities? If so, at what
levels? Do government authorities (such as customs, border
guards, immigration officials, labor inspectors, local
police, or others) receive bribes from traffickers or
otherwise assist in their operations? What punitive
measures, if any, have been taken against those individuals
complicit or involved in trafficking? Please provide
numbers, as applicable, of government officials involved,
accused, investigated, prosecuted, convicted and sentenced.

No government authority or individual member of government
facilitates or condones trafficking. Bribery of public
officials in Ireland is quite rare. (Ireland's Transparency
International Rating is 7.5, the same as Belgium and the
United States.)

--I. What are the limitations on the government's ability to
address this problem in practice? For example, is funding
for police or other institutions inadequate? Is overall
corruption a problem? Does the government lack the resources
to aid victims?

Immigration into Ireland, including illegal immigration, is a
relatively new phenomenon, so the government has only
recently put into place the necessary staff, resources, and
procedures to deal with this increased flow. Beyond basic
budgetary concerns, there is no unique limitation of
resources to address trafficking. Irish police and border
authorities are competent and well-run.

--J. To what extent does the government systematically
monitor its anti-trafficking efforts (on all fronts --
prosecution, prevention and victim protection) and
periodically make available, publicly or privately and
directly or through regional/international organizations, its
assessments of these anti-trafficking efforts?

The GNIB works under the Irish National Police but carries
out its immigration functions on behalf of the Minister of
Justice. This system ensures a sharing of information among
immigration policy makers, immigration officers, and national
police. A GNIB representative also participates in an
information-sharing forum of NGOs working to combat
trafficking and to deter violence against women. The
government does not specifically track, and therefore does
not publish, trafficking statistics, nor does it have a
formal inter-agency task force.

--K. Is prostitution legalized or decriminalized?
Specifically, are the activities of the prostitute
criminalized? Are the activities of the brothel
owner/operator, clients, pimps, and enforcers criminalized?
If prostitution is legal and regulated, what is the legal
minimum age for this activity?

Prostitution itself is not illegal under Irish law, but it is
an offense to solicit another person for the purposes of
prostitution or to be involved in organized prostitution.


--A. Does the government acknowledge that trafficking is a
problem in that country? If so, why not?

The Irish Government acknowledges that there is anecdotal
information about Ireland as a possible destination and
transit country for trafficking. It has not found evidence
that the problem presently exists in any measurable scale.
It investigates allegations of trafficking.

--B. Which government agencies are involved in
anti-trafficking efforts?

Agencies of the Irish National Police (Garda) are primarily
responsible for operational anti-trafficking efforts. The
Department of Justice creates trafficking legislation and
provides support to the police. The Garda National
Immigration Bureau is responsible for all matters pertaining
to Immigration. Within the National Support Services, the
National Bureau of Criminal Investigation has responsibility
for investigations of trafficking in human beings.

In conjunction with the GNIB, the Departments of Justice and
Foreign Affairs participate in regional and international
conferences on trafficking. The Department of Foreign
Affairs also is engaged through development assistance, EU,
COE and OSCE obligations, and the co-sponsorship of
resolutions at the UN and UNHCR.

-- C. Are there or have there been government-run
anti-trafficking public information or public education
campaigns? If so, briefly describe the campaign(s),
including their objectives and effectiveness. Do these
campaigns target potential trafficking victims and/or the
demand for trafficking (e.g. "clients" of prostitutes or
beneficiaries of forced labor)?

The government has not yet launched a public information
campaign against trafficking, and Embassy officials have
urged it to do so, citing the government's effective public
information campaigns against drunk driving and HIV/AIDS as
good examples. In September 2004, the Irish Department of
Justice and the national police launched a website,, dedicated to locating missing children.
Most of the children that are missing in Ireland are
non-nationals and arrived in Ireland as unaccompanied minors
seeking asylum.

--D. Does the government support other programs to prevent
trafficking? (e.g., to promote women's participation in
economic decision-making or efforts to keep children in
school.) Please explain.

The Irish Government co-funds IOM's "return and
reintegration" program, which is designed to reunite families
divided by migration. The Garda established a Garda Racial
and Intercultural Office to train the police to effectively
interact with the new minorities that have immigrated to
Ireland in recent years. Training focuses on gaining the
trust of minority communities and encouraging community
members to approach police and report crime.

--E. Is the government able to support prevention programs?

The GOI focus at this time is detecting trafficking.

--F. What is the relationship between government officials,
NGOs, other relevant organizations and other elements of
civil society on the trafficking issue?

All NGOs report excellent working relationships with Garda
and the government, with whom they deal on a regular basis.
Police and Immigration officials regularly refer potential
victims of trafficking to various NGOs. NGOs, while desiring
more comprehensive legislation, strongly commend the
initiative of individual law enforcement and government
officials, and salute cooperation with the government,
especially on the ground and at the executive level. In
regard to government policies and actions, NGO views varied
from those who believed the government was doing as well as
could be expected, to those who wanted to see more action at
the highest levels and the formation of an interagency task
force. Some felt the government would not take more action
unless trafficking became more prevalent and public concern
grew. All NGOs agreed the government should provide more
victim support to trafficking victims and more support and
supervision for unaccompanied minors.

The Immigration Division of the Department of Justice,
Equality and Law Reform works closely with the GNIB to combat
illegal immigration. To facilitate the tracking of potential
victims, the GNIB shares its immigration database with local
police precincts and a UK immigration official posted to the
GNIB headquarters. Cooperation and coordination with NGOs
takes place through direct contacts between the Irish
Government and the relevant NGOs. Ireland en Route (IER) is
a loose network of government agencies, NGOs, academics and
other experts who meet three times per year to communicate on
topics such as training for police, EU and domestic
legislation, best practices and other trafficking issues. It
is not a national action plan or task force, but does
facilitate the coordination of anti-trafficking efforts.

The Department of Foreign Affairs brought together a wide
array of NGOs and governmental officials at the "Women and
Human Rights" Convention in December 2004.

The Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform consulted
widely with transportation companies prior to the
introduction of legal sanctions in the Immigration Act, 2003.
This Act followed the 2001 creation of a voluntary Code of
Practice with the Irish Road Haulage Association to encourage
greater vigilance in ensuring that covert passengers were not
present in vehicles arriving in Ireland.

--G. Does the government adequately monitor its borders?
Does it monitor immigration and emigration patterns for
evidence of trafficking? Do law enforcement agencies respond
appropriately to such evidence?

Yes, the government monitors its borders and immigration and
emigration patterns for evidence of trafficking, and law
enforcement agencies respond appropriately to such evidence.
Immigration officers are present at all air and seaports
within the state. In 2003, a new information technology
system equipped with a passport reader and facial recognition
technology was introduced to allow immigration officers at
the border to link-up with a database at GNIB headquarters in
Dublin. Immigration officials also take fingerprints of most
visitors entering the country who have entry visas. Ireland
has a land border with Northern Ireland that is difficult to
monitor due to numerous unmanned crossing points, and police
on both sides of the border say this is the predominant
crossing point for illegal immigrants. An estimated 12,000
illegal movements take place at the border with Northern
Ireland every year. Immigration officers from the GNIB and
from local districts monitor certain crossing points

--H. Is there a mechanism for coordination and communication
between various agencies, such as a multi-agency working
group or a task force? Does the government have a
trafficking in persons task force? Does the government have
a public corruption task force?

De facto law enforcement coordination exists as a result of
the multiple functions of the GNIB. The GNIB works under the
direction of the Garda, but its immigration function is
carried out on behalf of the Minister of Justice. This
ensures constant contact between immigration policy makers,
immigration police, and regular police. At the policy
level, officials from different agencies coordinate their
actions on an as-needed basis.

--I. Does the government coordinate with or participate in
multinational or international working groups or efforts to
prevent, monitor, or control trafficking?

The government works closely with the UK, France, Spain and
the Netherlands. It is engaged multilaterally through the
EU, EUROPOL, the OSCE, the UN, and the Council of Europe.
--J. Does the government have a national plan of action to
address trafficking in persons? If so, which agencies were
involved in developing it? Were NGOs consulted in the
process? What steps has the government taken to disseminate
the action plan?

The government does not currently have a plan exclusively to
address trafficking, but immigration officials keep current
on suspected trafficking patterns and investigate regularly.
In December, the Minister of State for Development publicly
pledged to submit a national plan of action to the OSCE.

--K. Is there some entity or person responsible for
developing anti-trafficking programs within the government?
The Department of Justice and the Garda National Immigration
Bureau develop anti-trafficking programs within the
government. The DFA coordinates international cooperation
and development assistance.


--A. Does the country have a law specifically prohibiting
trafficking in persons--both trafficking for sexual
exploitation and trafficking for non-sexual purposes (e.g.
forced labor)? If so, what is the law? Does the law(s) cover
both internal and external (transnational) forms of
trafficking? If not, under what other laws can traffickers be
prosecuted? For example, are there laws against slavery or
the exploitation of prostitution by means of coercion or
fraud? Are these other laws being used in trafficking cases?
Are these laws, taken together, adequate to cover the full
scope of trafficking in persons?

There are presently four Laws that deal with trafficking in
persons - The Immigration Act 2003, The Illegal Immigrants
(Trafficking) Act, 2000, The Child Trafficking and
Pornography Act, 1998, and The Proceeds of Crime Act, 1996.
Under current Irish law, "trafficking" encompasses both
smuggling and trafficking.

The Immigration Act requires carriers operating aircraft,
ferries, or other vehicles bringing persons to Ireland from
any area except the Common Travel area between Ireland and
the UK, to ensure that those passengers are in possession of
the necessary immigration documentation. The Act provides for
a fine for passengers traveling with inadequate documentation.

In addition, the Act requires Government Departments, local
authorities, health boards, the police, and the Refugee
Applications determination bodies to share information on
non-nationals, including applicants for refugee status, in
order to ensure compliance with laws relating to their entry,
residence, and removal from the State.

The Illegal Immigrants (Trafficking) Act, 2000 made it an
offense for a person to organize or knowingly facilitate the
entry into the State of a person whom he knows to be, or has
reasonable cause to believe to be, an illegal immigrant or
person who intends to seek asylum. While this law more
correctly describes smuggling, a trafficker would also be
subject to this law. Section 2 of this Act would apply most
readily to traffickers, as it specifically prohibits bringing
in illegal immigrants for the financial gain of those
facilitating the entry. The penalty on conviction of
indictment for this offense is an unlimited fine, or up to 10
years imprisonment, or both. The penalty for a guilty plea,
however, is a maximum of 12 months incarceration and a fine
not to exceed euro 1,500.

The Child Trafficking and Pornography Act makes it an
offense, inter alia, to organize or knowingly facilitate the
entry into, transit through, or exit from the State of a
child for the purpose of sexual exploitation, or to provide
accommodation to such a child while in the State. The
maximum penalty is life imprisonment.

The Proceeds of Crime Act allows for the confiscation of
assets of those involved in criminal activity, including
trafficking in people. In addition, the assessment of tax
liability on the illegal earnings may be pursued.

--B. What are the penalties for traffickers of people for
sexual exploitation? For traffickers of people for labor

The one crime of trafficking covers both offenses. If the
circuit court deals with a case, then the penalty can include
up to a euro 1500 fine and 12 months in jail. If a case is
appealed to the district court, then the penalty is a maximum
of ten years imprisonment, there is no cap on the fine.

--C. What are the penalties for rape or forcible sexual
assault? How do they compare to the penalty for sex

Under Irish Law, the maximum sentence possible for rape is
life imprisonment (eight years is the average sentence), and
the maximum possible sentence for aggravated sexual assault
is life imprisonment. This is similar to the penalty for
Child Trafficking as provided for in the Child Trafficking
and Pornography Act 1998.

--D. Has the Government prosecuted any cases against
traffickers? If so, provide numbers of investigations,
prosecutions, convictions, and sentences, including details
on plea bargains and fines, if relevant and available. Are
the traffickers serving the time sentenced: If no, why not?
Please indicate whether the government can provide this
information, and if not, why not? (Note: complete answers to
this section are essential. End Note)

In December 2004, Dublin courts sentenced a Portuguese man to
prison for nine months and fined him euro 1,000 for
attempting to traffic two Brazilian women. He was the first
person to be convicted of trafficking in Ireland. In January
2005, the GNIB charged a Nigerian-born man under trafficking
laws for attempting to bring 14 non-nationals into the
country. The national police report that investigations into
other charges of trafficking are ongoing.

--E. Is there any information or reports of who is behind the
trafficking? For example, are the traffickers freelance
operators, small crime groups, and/or large international
organized crime syndicates? Are employment, travel and
tourism agencies or marriage brokers fronting for traffickers
or crime groups to traffic individuals? Are government
officials involved? Are there any reports on where profits
from trafficking in persons are being channeled? (e.g. armed
groups, terrorist organizations, judges, banks, etc.)

The limited trafficking that may occur is believed to involve
criminals with international links. Some anecdotal reports
indicate that agents may be hired by lap dancing clubs to
find young women from European sex industry circuits. NGOs
report that, though highly organized, there is no centralized
trafficking. There are no allegations of involvement by
government officials.

--F. Does the government actively investigate cases of
trafficking? (Again, the focus should be on trafficking
cases versus migrant smuggling cases.) Does the government
use active investigative techniques in trafficking in persons
investigations? To the extent possible under domestic law,
are techniques such as electronic surveillance, undercover
operations, and mitigated punishment or immunity for
cooperating suspects used by the government? Does the
criminal procedure code or other laws prohibit the police
from engaging in covert operations?

The GOI does actively investigate alleged cases of
trafficking. When there is suspicion of trafficking, the
Government responds appropriately. Operation Quest was a
case in point, in which police thoroughly questioned those
involved in raids to determine if they were trafficking
victims, and maintained contact in subsequent months.
Operation Quest resulted in the closings of several lap-dance
clubs. Even though the underlying motive for the
investigations was suspicion of trafficking, no victims
claimed to be trafficked, and police prosecuted only for work
permit violations and prostitution violations. In another
instance, Irish authorities investigated illegal immigrants
brought from Mauritius. The facts revealed that the
Mauritians were smuggled, not trafficked, and arrived hoping
for better jobs and social benefits.

--G. Does the government provide any specialized training for
government officials in how to recognize, investigate, and
prosecute instances of trafficking?
The government provides training in country and sends
officials to seminars and conferences abroad. Some examples

--Law enforcement personnel receive specialized training in
country, including from NGOs.

--Irish law enforcement organizations take part in
European-wide conferences on the prevention of organized
exploitation of women and children and are part of the
Interpol Working Group on Trafficking in Human Beings. This
group developed a manual of best practices for investigators
that provides practical guidelines for investigators and a
structured way to locate advice on a specific issue.
--In September, the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs sent
officials to attend the OSCE conference on "Ensuring Human
Rights Protection in Countries of Destination: Breaking the
Cycle of Trafficking."

--In October 2004, GOI officials attended the Curriculum
Development on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings at the
Geneva Center for Security Policy.

--In June, Ireland, as a member of the Euro-Atlantic
Partnership Council (EAPC) endorsed the NATO Policy on
Combating Trafficking in Human Beings. In September, the
Department of Foreign Affairs sent individuals to a follow-up
conference on implementing the NATO policy.

--H. Does the government cooperate with other governments in
the investigation and prosecution of trafficking cases? If
possible, can post provide the number of cooperative
international investigations on trafficking?

The GOI does cooperate with other governments in the
investigation of prosecution of trafficking victims. Irish
officials are posted at French ports that provide ferry
service to Ireland to liaise with French counterparts and
deter trafficking. The GNIB has established operational
cooperation with immigration and police authorities in both
the United Kingdom and France, major transit points for
illegal immigration into Ireland, with a particular focus on
trafficking and smuggling activity. Garda liaison officers
are also assigned to Russia and China to interact with local
law enforcement authorities on immigration and trafficking
matters. Additionally, the GNIB liaises with carrier
companies whose routes may be vulnerable to traffickers.

--I. Does the government extradite persons who are charged
with trafficking in other countries? If so, can post provide
the number of traffickers extradited? Does the government
extradite its own nationals charged with such offenses? If
not, is the government prohibited by law form extraditing its
own nationals? If so, what is the government doing to modify
its laws to permit the extradition of its own nationals?

Yes. The Irish Government can extradite its own nationals
to countries that have a reciprocal agreement with Ireland.
There have been no trafficking-related extraditions to date.

--J. Is there evidence of government involvement in or
tolerance of trafficking, on a local or institutional level?
If so, please explain in detail.

There is no evidence of government involvement in or
tolerance of trafficking, on a local or institutional level.

--K. If government officials are involved in trafficking,
what steps has the government taken to end such
participation? Have any government officials been prosecuted
for involvement in trafficking or trafficking-related
corruption? Have any been convicted? What actual sentence
was imposed? Please provide specific numbers, if available.

There is no evidence of government involvement in trafficking.

--L. If the country has an identified child sex tourism
problem (as source or destination), how many foreign
pedophiles has the government prosecuted or
deported/extradited to their country of origin? Does the
country's child sexual abuse laws have extraterritorial
coverage (like the U.S. PROTECT Act)?

Ireland does not have an identified child sex tourism
problem. The GOI has authority to deport non-national
pedophiles according to the strictures of its extradition
treaty with the country of origin of the arrested individual.

--M. Has the government signed, ratified, and/or taken steps
to implement the following international instruments? Please
provide the date of signature/ratification if appropriate.

--ILO Convention 182 concerning the prohibition and immediate
action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labor.

--ILO Convention 29 and 105 on forced or compulsory labor.

--The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of
the Child (CRC) on the sale of children, child prostitution,
and child pornography.

--The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in
Persons, especially Women and Children, supplementing the UN
Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime.

ILO Convention 182 was ratified on December 12, 1999.

ILO Convention 29 was ratified on June 11, 1958.

ILO Convention 105 was ratified on March 2, 1931.

The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of a
Child was signed on September 7, 2000, and ratifying
legislation is being prepared.

The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in
Persons was signed in December 2000, and ratifying
legislation is being prepared.


--A. Does the government assist victims, for example, by
providing temporary to permanent residency status, relief
from deportation, shelter and access to legal, medical and
psychological services? If so, please explain. Does the
country have victim care and victim health care facilities?
If so, can post provide the number of victims placed in these
care facilities?

The GOI provides care for separated children seeking asylum.
The Department of Health receives referrals from Immigration
Officials and the Office of the Refugee Applications
Commissioner. National health boards are responsible for the
care of children (17 and younger) and provide social,
medical, psychological, and educational services as well as
family reunification when possible. In 2004, 617
unaccompanied children requested asylum in Ireland.

The national police report that suspected victims of
trafficking/smuggling are referred to humanitarian NGOs, such
as Ruhama or the International Organization for Migration for
care. NGOs in Ireland provide food, shelter, social and
medical care, and legal assistance if desired. NGOs
occasionally help in cases of deportation. Police and NGOs
report that some women turn to NGOs for temporary assistance,
only to disappear and return to the sex industry elsewhere on
the European circuit.

--B. Does the government provide funding or other forms of
support to foreign or domestic NGOs for services to victims?
Please explain.

The Department of Justice, Equality and Law reform provided a
euro 200,000 grant to Ruhama for victim support services.
The government also provided support in terms of funds and
personnel to Ireland En Route and co-funded IOM's Trafficking
in Unaccompanied Minors in Ireland report. The government
also provided funding to organizations like the International
Organization for Migration, SPIRASI (an NGO that deals with
victims of torture), and the Immigrant Council of Ireland,
that do not specifically address trafficking, but
occasionally may work with trafficking victims.

Development Cooperation Ireland (the development agency
within the Department of Foreign Affairs) provided euro
200,000 to the ILO-created Special Action Programme to Combat
Forced Labour (SAP-FL), designed to help EU Member States
tackle the forced labor outcomes of trafficking. Funding for
2005 and 2006 will increase to euro 400,000 per annum.

Development Co-operation Ireland is currently funding ECPAT
International, an NGO that is strengthening protection of
children in Central America from commercial sexual
exploitation. Funding from 2002 - 2005 for the project will
be approximately 100,000 Euros.

--C. Is there a screening and referral process in place, when
appropriate, to transfer victims detained, arrested or placed
in protective custody by law enforcement authorities to NGO's
that provide short- or long-term care?

Police regularly make referrals to Ruhama and other NGOs, who
then provide women with care and support.

--D. Are the rights of victims respected, or are victims also
treated as criminals? Are victims detained, jailed, or
deported? If detained or jailed, for how long? Are victims
fined? Are victims prosecuted for violations of other laws,
such as those governing immigration or prostitution?

NGOs report that women suspected of being trafficking victims
are generally treated well, but there have been instances in
rural areas where police, unfamiliar with the trafficking
phenomenon, have initially detained women in prison. Alleged
victims have also been held in jail until the courts were
satisfactorily able to determine their true identity.

Ireland is a signatory to the EU's Framework Decision on the
Standing of Victims in Criminal Proceedings to harmonize the
treatment of victims of crime across the EU. GOI
implementing legislation requires the police to show special
sensitivity in relations to victims of sexual offenses.

--E. Does the government encourage victims to assist in the
investigation and prosecution of trafficking? Can victims
file civil suits or seek legal action against the
traffickers? Does anyone impede the victims' access to such
legal redress? If a victim is a material witness in a court
case against the former employer, is the victim permitted to
obtain other employment or to leave the country? Is there a
victim restitution program?

NGOs report that the police encourage women to assist in
investigations, but do not pressure them to do so. Victims
may file suit, but as non-nationals and in many cases,
non-English speakers working in illegal or questionable jobs,
the judicial processes may be intimidating. The case brought
forth must be ironclad, which is rare in trafficking, or the
victim may not be able to retain counsel. The victim must be
able to post bond for filing suit, and if she loses the case,
must pay the legal costs of the winner. If a victim is in
violation of immigration law, she is also subject to
immediate deportation.

--F. What kind of protection is the government able to
provide for victims and witnesses? Does it provide these
protections in practice? How many shelters does the
government run or fund (in full or in part)? How much
funding does the government provide for shelters?

The government has a witness protection program but has not
applied it to trafficking cases thus far. Both the
government and NGOs provide shelter to people in need, but
there are no shelters specifically earmarked for victims of
trafficking or smuggling.

--G. Does the government provide any specialized training for
government officials in recognizing trafficking and in the
provision of assistance to trafficked victims, including the
special needs of trafficked children? Does the government
provide training on protection and assistance to its
embassies and consulates in foreign countries that are
destination or transit countries? Does it urge those
embassies and consulates to develop ongoing relationships
with NGOs that serve trafficked victims?

Social workers, members of the Special Unaccompanied Minors
Unit in the Dublin Health Board, the GNIB, national police,
and staff of the Refugee Applications Commissioner are
trained to spot possible trafficking victims. The GNIB works
closely with UK counterparts to review and track cases of
suspected trafficking. While DFA officials participate in
international conferences and training sessions, the
diplomatic corps as a whole is not specifically trained
regarding assistance or support for trafficking victims.

--H. Does the government provide assistance, such as medical
aid, shelter, or financial help, to its repatriated nationals
who are victims of trafficking?


--I. Which internationals organizations or NGOs, if any, work
with trafficking victims? What type of services do they
provide? What sort of cooperation do they receive from local

There are several smaller NGOs, particularly minority or
immigration rights NGOs, who may indirectly come into contact
with trafficking victims. However, the most active
organizations are:

- Ruhama - Ruhama provides support to women who have been
trafficked for sexual exploitation. Ruhama provides
emergency accommodation, if possible, social and
psychological support, referrals to health and legal
authorities, and assistance in accessing educational and
employment opportunities.

- International Organization for Migration, Dublin - In
relation to trafficking, IOM carries out information
campaigns, provides counseling service, conducts research on
trafficking, and assists victims who willingly want to return
to his or her home country.

- Ireland En Route - Ireland En Route is a Forum on
Trafficking of Women and Children for Sexual Exploitation.
This is a multi-agency group comprised of Health Board
representatives, police, members of the GNIB, and NGOs. The
forum was set up in 2000 to raise awareness and address some
of the issues associated with trafficking of women and
children for sexual exploitation. It also attempts to
disseminate trafficking information within the group and with
other organizations.

- Doras Luimni - Doras Luimni seeks to assists refugee and
asylum seekers in the west of Ireland. It assists
appropriate people in finding housing, educational
opportunities, and completing the asylum procedures. Doras
Luimni also attempts to inform the local community in dealing
with issues regarding asylum-seekers and multiculturalism.

4. (U) Point of Contact for this report is Pol/Econ Officer
Tom Rosenberger, office phone 353-1-668-8777 ext. 2330, fax
number 353-1-667-0056, e-mail

5. (U) The number of hours spent compiling this report by
embassy employee is as follows:

Name, rank and time spent:
Ambassador James Kenny, FA-NC ) 3 hours
DCM Jonathan Benton, FS-01 ) 5 hours
POL/ECON Chief Mary Daly, FS-01 - 25 hours
Economics Officer Joe Young, FS-02 - 10 hours
POL/ECON officer Tom Rosenberger, FS-04 ) 80 hours
POL/ECON OMS Tim Markley, FS-06 ) 2 hours