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Identifier
Created
Classification
Origin
02ROME3648
2002-07-24 09:08:00
UNCLASSIFIED
Embassy Rome
Cable title:  

DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SEEK EMPOWERMENT IN BIOTECH

Tags:   AORC  EAGR  ETRD  ECON  TBIO  IT  FAO 
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						UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 06 ROME 003648 

SIPDIS

USAID FOR JOSETTE LEWIS
USDA WASHDC FOR JUNE BLALOCK
STATE FOR SCIENCE ADVISOR NEUREITER
EB FOR A/S WAYNE, PDAS DONNELLY, DAS GADSDEN
EB/TPP/ATT FOR PEREZ
E FOR SHUB
EUR/ERA FOR HEN-NIL
OES FOR A/S TURNER, PDAS ROCK
STATE PASS USTR FOR STROJE, NOVELLI
STATE PASS USDA FOR APHIS:SMCCAMMON, USDA/FAS:BLUM
USDA/OS/HEGWOOD
STATE PASS FDA FOR EFLAMM
NSC FOR EDSON

E.O. 12958: DECL: N/A
TAGS: AORC EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO IT FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO
SUBJECT: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SEEK EMPOWERMENT IN BIOTECH
FROM INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS


UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 06 ROME 003648

SIPDIS

USAID FOR JOSETTE LEWIS
USDA WASHDC FOR JUNE BLALOCK
STATE FOR SCIENCE ADVISOR NEUREITER
EB FOR A/S WAYNE, PDAS DONNELLY, DAS GADSDEN
EB/TPP/ATT FOR PEREZ
E FOR SHUB
EUR/ERA FOR HEN-NIL
OES FOR A/S TURNER, PDAS ROCK
STATE PASS USTR FOR STROJE, NOVELLI
STATE PASS USDA FOR APHIS:SMCCAMMON, USDA/FAS:BLUM
USDA/OS/HEGWOOD
STATE PASS FDA FOR EFLAMM
NSC FOR EDSON

E.O. 12958: DECL: N/A
TAGS: AORC EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO ITALY'>IT FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO
abbr>
SUBJECT: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SEEK EMPOWERMENT IN BIOTECH
FROM INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS



1. SUMMARY: DESCRIBING THEMSELVES AS BIOTECH INNOVATORS,
RESEARCHERS FROM LARGE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (INDIA, BRAZIL,
CHINA, THE PHILIPPINES, AND OTHERS) PARTICIPATING IN A JUNE
24-27 WORKSHOP CO-SPONSORED BY THE U.N.'S FOOD AND
AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO) AND THE UNIVERSITY OF ROME
TOR VERGATA EMPHASIZED THEIR NEED FOR GREATER EMPOWERMENT IN
IPR (INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS) PROTECTION. THE AIMS OF
THE CONSULTATION WERE TO ANALYZE THE EFFECTS OF IPRS ON
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 03 ROME 03648 01 OF 06 240911Z
BIOTECH IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD, DELINEATE APPROPRIATE
POLICY OPTIONS TO MEET PRIORITY NEEDS WHILE RESPECTING
INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS, IDENTIFY CAPACITY NEEDS, AND
PRODUCE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION. LARGE DEVELOPING
COUNTRY REPRESENTATIVES DID NOT IDEOLOGICALLY OPPOSE IPR OR
GRUMBLE ABOUT MULTINATIONALS BUT, INSTEAD, SEIZED THE
OPPORTUNITY TO EXPRESS THEIR EAGERNESS TO USE IP TO PROTECT
THEIR OWN RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS. IMPORTANT OUTCOMES WERE:
-DEVELOPING COUNTRIES EMPHASIZED THE ROLE OF PUBLICLY FUNDED
RESEARCH AND THE NEED TO SHAPE IPR REGIMES TO BE MORE
AMENABLE TO PROTECTING AND COMMERCIALIZING PUBLIC SECTOR
RESEARCH.
-DEVELOPING COUNTRIES STRESSED THAT SCIENTISTS LACK BOTH
ADEQUATE KNOWLEDGE OF IPR AND AN UNDERSTANDING OF WHEN TO
SEEK PATENT PROTECTION.
-DEVELOPING COUNTRIES NOTED THAT FARMERS OFTEN PLAY A
DRIVING ROLE IN DECIDING WHETHER TO ADOPT NEW TECHNOLOGY
(SUCH AS GMOS) WHEN DECISIONS ARE STYMIED AT THE POLITICAL
LEVEL.
-EXTENSION (MOVING TECHNOLOGY FROM THE LABS TO THE NATIONAL
AND LOCAL LEVELS) REMAINS A PROBLEM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES.
-DEVELOPING COUNTRIES EXPRESSED THEIR DESIRE TO PARTICIPATE
IN PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS OF THE TYPE THAT MONSANTO AND
SYNGENTA ARE FACILITATING. SUCH PARTNERSHIPS FOCUS ON
IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF CROPS THAT ARE LESS VALUABLE
COMMERCIALLY BUT MORE IMPORTANT LOCALLY (SUCH AS PAPAYA AND
CASSAVA) AND ENSURING THAT BIOTECH IS MADE AVAILABLE IN THE
FIGHT AGAINST FOOD INSECURITY.
END SUMMARY

THE RATIONALE AND GOALS OF THE CONSULTATION
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 04 ROME 03648 01 OF 06 240911Z
--------------

2. THE FAO AND THE UNIVERSITY OF TOR VERGATA ROME ORGANIZED
AND CO-SPONSORED THE WORKSHOP "PUBLIC AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH:
THE IMPACT OF IPRS ON BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES"
FROM JUNE 24-27 IN ROME, ITALY. THE WORKSHOP RATIONALE, AS
EXPLAINED BY THE ORGANIZERS, STEMMED FROM THE INCREASE IN
PROPRIETARY AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS THAT IS OCCURRING UNDER
THE NEW FRAMEWORK OF THE TRIPS AGREEMENT (THE WTO AGREEMENT
ON TRADE-RELATED ASPECTS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS).
NOTING THAT THE TRIPS AGREEMENT GENERALLY AIMS TO REDUCE
DISTORTIONS IN TRADE AND TO PROMOTE TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION
AND TRANSFER, THE CONFERENCE ORGANIZERS STRESSED THAT IT IS
IMPORTANT THAT THE ITS IMPLEMENTATION DOES NOT RESTRICT
EFFORTS TO ELIMINATE FOOD INSECURITY. ACCORDING TO THE FAO,
GIVEN THAT CAPACITY AND PUBLIC INVESTMENT VARY SIGNIFICANTLY
AMONG COUNTRIES AND THAT THE ADVANCED PRODUCTS BEING
PRODUCED BY MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS ARE TARGETED TO THE
COMMERCIAL FARMING SECTOR, NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL ACTION
IS NEEDED TO FACILITATE PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN PRIVATE FIRMS
AND PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD. USG-FUNDED
PARTICIPANTS WERE JUNE BLALOCK, THE COORDINATOR OF THE
TECHNICAL LICENSING PROGRAM FOR THE USDA'S AGRICULTURAL
RESEARCH SERVICE; ROSEMARY WOLSON, THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
MANAGER IN THE OFFICE OF INDUSTRY LIAISON AT THE UNIVERSITY

UNCLASSIFIED

UNCLASSIFIED PTQ6389

PAGE 01 ROME 03648 02 OF 06 240912Z
ACTION EB-00

INFO LOG-00 NP-00 AF-00 AGRE-00 AID-00 CEA-01 CIAE-00
COME-00 CTME-00 DODE-00 ITCE-00 DOTE-00 WHA-00 SRPP-00
EAP-00 EXME-00 EUR-00 E-00 FAAE-00 UTED-00 VC-00
FRB-00 HHS-01 H-01 TEDE-00 INR-00 IO-00 ITC-01
LAB-01 L-00 VCE-00 AC-01 NEA-00 NSAE-00 OES-01
OIC-02 OMB-01 OPIC-01 ACE-00 SP-00 SSO-00 SS-00
STR-00 TEST-00 TRSE-00 USIE-00 SA-00 DRL-02 G-00
NFAT-00 SAS-00 /013W
-------------- CF7DC8 240912Z /38
P 240908Z JUL 02
FM AMEMBASSY ROME
TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 5057
INFO USMISSION GENEVA
EU MEMBER STATES COLLECTIVE
AMCONSUL FLORENCE
AMCONSUL MILAN
AMCONSUL NAPLES
AMEMBASSY BRASILIA
AMEMBASSY HARARE
AMEMBASSY PRETORIA
AMEMBASSY MANILA
AMEMBASSY MEXICO
AMEMBASSY NEW DELHI
AMEMBASSY BEIJING
AMEMBASSY BUENOS AIRES
AMEMBASSY NAIROBI
USINT HAVANA
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 02 ROME 03648 02 OF 06 240912Z
NSC WASHDC

UNCLAS SECTION 02 OF 06 ROME 003648

SIPDIS

USAID FOR JOSETTE LEWIS
USDA WASHDC FOR JUNE BLALOCK
STATE FOR SCIENCE ADVISOR NEUREITER
EB FOR A/S WAYNE, PDAS DONNELLY, DAS GADSDEN
EB/TPP/ATT FOR PEREZ
E FOR SHUB
EUR/ERA FOR HEN-NIL
OES FOR A/S TURNER, PDAS ROCK
STATE PASS USTR FOR STROJE, NOVELLI
STATE PASS USDA FOR APHIS:SMCCAMMON, USDA/FAS:BLUM
USDA/OS/HEGWOOD
STATE PASS FDA FOR EFLAMM
NSC FOR EDSON

E.O. 12958: DECL: N/A
TAGS: AORC EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO IT FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO
SUBJECT: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SEEK EMPOWERMENT IN BIOTECH
FROM INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

OF CAPE TOWN; AND SITHOLE NIANG OF THE UNIVERSITY OF
ZIMBABWE.

SETTING THE SCENE: OUTLINING NEEDS, CONSTRAINTS, AND
OPPORTUNITIES
-------------- --------------

3. DEVELOPING COUNTRY PRESENTERS INCLUDED REPRESENTATIVES
FROM ZIMBABWE, KENYA, INDIA, THE PHILIPPINES, CHINA, CUBA,
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 03 ROME 03648 02 OF 06 240912Z
MEXICO, BRAZIL, AND ARGENTINA. ACADEMICS AND RESEARCHERS
WERE PRESENT FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF TOR VERGATA, CORNELL
UNIVERSITY, AND DODDS & ASSOCIATES, WHICH PRESENTED JOHN
DODD'S STUDY "INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS IN AGRICULTURE."
REPRESENTATIVES FROM THE FAO, WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
ORGANIZATION (WIPO), THE INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR THE
PROTECTION OF NEW VARIETIES OF PLANTS (UPOV), INTERNATIONAL
SERVICE FOR NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH (ISNAR), USDA,
THE WORLD BANK, CONSULTATIVE GROUP ON INTERNATIONAL
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH (CGIAR), THE INTERNATIONAL MAIZE AND
WHEAT IMPROVEMENT CENTER (CIMMYT), THE ROCKEFELLER
FOUNDATION, MONSANTO, AND SYNGENTA ALSO ATTENDED.


4. IPR CONSTRAINTS, NEEDS, AND OPPORTUNITIES OF PUBLIC
SECTOR RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS WERE IDENTIFIED EARLY IN THE
WORKSHOP. A PRINCIPAL THEME OF DISCUSSION WAS TODAY'S HIGH
RISK/LOW BENEFIT SITUATION THAT DISCOURAGES PUBLIC RESEARCH
INSTITUTIONS FROM INVESTING IN BIOTECH OR PATENTING THEIR
INNOVATIONS. BARRIERS TO THE DIFFUSION OF AGRICULTURAL
BIOTECH, IMPOSED BY BIOSAFETY CONCERNS IN BOTH INTERNAL AND
EXPORT MARKETS AND HIGH REGULATION COSTS, CAN ACT AS
BARRIERS TO PUBLIC BIOTECH RESEARCH. INADEQUATE
COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITY AND POLICY
MAKERS CONTRIBUTES TO A MISUNDERSTANDING AND FEAR OF NEW
TECHNOLOGIES, PROMPTING THE ADOPTION OF OVERLY CONSERVATIVE
POLICY.


5. PARTICIPANTS NOTED THE LACK OF INCENTIVES OFFERED TO
PUBLIC SECTOR SCIENTISTS FOR PATENTING THEIR INNOVATIONS.
TODAY, PUBLISHED RESEARCH CONFERS MORE CAREER REWARDS THAN
PATENTING. TO REMEDY THIS SITUATION, SEVERAL PARTICIPANTS
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 04 ROME 03648 02 OF 06 240912Z
SUGGESTED CREATING WAYS TO REWARD ENTREPRENEURS IN THE
PUBLIC SECTOR, BY ENDOWING PATENTS WITH A PRESTIGE SIMILAR
TO THAT OF HAVING WORK PUBLISHED OR BY REWARDING RESEARCHERS
FINANCIALLY (RATHER THAN HAVING ALL PROFITS FUNNEL BACK INTO
THE PUBLIC INSTITUTION).


6. INSUFFICIENT NATIONAL RESOURCES FOR RESEARCH AND
INADEQUATE IPR CAPACITY WERE ALSO HIGHLIGHTED AS CENTRAL
PROBLEMS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. WHEN ADEQUATE CAPACITY
EXISTS AT THE NATIONAL OR INTERNATIONAL LEVEL, THE CAPACITY
TO MOVE TECHNOLOGY TO THE LOCAL LEVEL, WHERE IT CAN HELP
SMALL FARMERS, IS OFTEN LACKING. SPEAKERS REPRESENTING
PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS AND PRIVATE FIRMS (MONSANTO) EXPRESSED
OPTIMISM ABOUT THE POTENTIAL FOR PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS
TO ADDRESS WIDE-RANGING NEEDS, BUT STRESSED THAT DONOR-BASED
ASSISTANCE IS NOT THE FINAL SOLUTION SINCE IT IS
UNSUSTAINABLE IN THE LONG TERM.

WHAT EVERYONE WANTS: THE COUNTRIES' PERSPECTIVES
-------------- --------------
AFRICA: LOW CAPACITY, DISTRUST, CONCERN OVER SUSTAINABLITY
OF BIOTECH INITIATIVES
-------------- --------------

7. THE COMMENTARY FROM THE AFRICAN COUNTRY REPRESENTATIVES,

UNCLASSIFIED

UNCLASSIFIED PTQ6393

PAGE 01 ROME 03648 03 OF 06 240912Z
ACTION EB-00

INFO LOG-00 NP-00 AF-00 AGRE-00 AID-00 CEA-01 CIAE-00
COME-00 CTME-00 DODE-00 ITCE-00 DOTE-00 WHA-00 SRPP-00
EAP-00 EXME-00 EUR-00 E-00 FAAE-00 UTED-00 VC-00
FRB-00 HHS-01 H-01 TEDE-00 INR-00 IO-00 ITC-01
LAB-01 L-00 VCE-00 AC-01 NEA-00 NSAE-00 OES-01
OIC-02 OMB-01 OPIC-01 ACE-00 SP-00 SSO-00 SS-00
STR-00 TEST-00 TRSE-00 USIE-00 SA-00 DRL-02 G-00
NFAT-00 SAS-00 /013W
-------------- CF7DD5 240912Z /38
P 240908Z JUL 02
FM AMEMBASSY ROME
TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 5058
INFO USMISSION GENEVA
EU MEMBER STATES COLLECTIVE
AMCONSUL FLORENCE
AMCONSUL MILAN
AMCONSUL NAPLES
AMEMBASSY BRASILIA
AMEMBASSY HARARE
AMEMBASSY PRETORIA
AMEMBASSY MANILA
AMEMBASSY MEXICO
AMEMBASSY NEW DELHI
AMEMBASSY BEIJING
AMEMBASSY BUENOS AIRES
AMEMBASSY NAIROBI
USINT HAVANA
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 02 ROME 03648 03 OF 06 240912Z
NSC WASHDC

UNCLAS SECTION 03 OF 06 ROME 003648

SIPDIS

USAID FOR JOSETTE LEWIS
USDA WASHDC FOR JUNE BLALOCK
STATE FOR SCIENCE ADVISOR NEUREITER
EB FOR A/S WAYNE, PDAS DONNELLY, DAS GADSDEN
EB/TPP/ATT FOR PEREZ
E FOR SHUB
EUR/ERA FOR HEN-NIL
OES FOR A/S TURNER, PDAS ROCK
STATE PASS USTR FOR STROJE, NOVELLI
STATE PASS USDA FOR APHIS:SMCCAMMON, USDA/FAS:BLUM
USDA/OS/HEGWOOD
STATE PASS FDA FOR EFLAMM
NSC FOR EDSON

E.O. 12958: DECL: N/A
TAGS: AORC EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO IT FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO
SUBJECT: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SEEK EMPOWERMENT IN BIOTECH
FROM INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

HANNINGTON ODAME, A RESEARCHER FOR THE AFRICAN CENTER FOR
TECHNOLOGY STUDIES OF KENYA, AND DR. SITHOLE NIANG OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE, PLACED INADEQUATE IPR CAPACITY IN
THE CONTEXT OF THE REGION'S LIMITED SCIENTIFIC RESOURCES AND
SUSPICION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY. IN THE CASE OF KENYA, ODAME
COMMENTED ON ITS LOW CAPACITY IN RISK ASSESSMENT AND
LAMENTED THE LACK OF EXTENSION, THE ABILITY TO MOVE
TECHNOLOGY TO THE LOCAL LEVEL. HE NOTED THAT THE MONSANTO
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 03 ROME 03648 03 OF 06 240912Z
AND USAID PARTNERSHIP IN SWEET POTATO RESEARCH, DESPITE
BEING CRITICIZED AS AN ATTEMPT TO OPEN UP THE MARKET,
STIMULATED THE FORMATION OF NEW BIOTECH REGULATIONS. HE
EXPRESSED CONCERN ABOUT THE SUSTAINABILITY OF DONOR-FUNDED
BIOTECH INITIATIVES, A WORRY THAT WOULD BE ECHOED BY THE
ZIMBABWEAN REPRESENTATIVE.


8. DR. SITHOLE NIANG EXPLAINED HOW ZIMBABWE IS PLAGUED BY A
BRAIN DRAIN AND NETWORKS BASED ON PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
RATHER THAN EXPERTISE. PUBLIC AWARENESS OF BIOSAFETY ISSUES
IS LACKING. ALTHOUGH THERE ARE RESEARCH INITIATIVES IN
CASSAVA, MAIZE, AND OTHER CROPS OF INTEREST TO THE COUNTRY,
THERE ARE "HUGE" LOBBIES AGAINST TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGIES BY
THE FORESTRY AND TOBACCO INDUSTRIES AND BY ENVIRONMENTAL
GROUPS. SHE ATTRIBUTED HER COUNTRY'S RECENT REJECTION OF GM
FOOD AID TO A LACK OF MILLING CAPACITY. SHE SAID THAT THE
ZIMBABWEAN GOVERNMENT REQUIRED GM GRAINS TO BE MILLED BEFORE
DISTRIBUTION IN ORDER TO PREVENT FOOD AID RECIPIENTS FROM
PLANTING THE SEEDS THEY RECEIVE. THE GOVERNMENT REJECTED
THE AID BECAUSE, IN THEORY, MILLING CAPACITY WAS
INSUFFICIENT TO FULFILL THIS REQUIREMENT.

INDIA: BIODIVERSITY FOCUS, NEW INCENTIVES, REALISTIC GOALS
-------------- --------------

9. S. R. RAO, THE INDIAN REPRESENTATIVE, STATED THAT
BIOTECHNOLOGY PLUS BIODIVERSITY EQUALS ECONOMIC WEALTH BUT
THAT SUFFICIENT INSTITUTIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE IS MISSING TO
SUM THE EQUATION. SHE ARGUED THAT THE BENEFITS ACCRUED FROM
PATENTING A NEW, GENETICALLY MODIFIED PLANT VARIETY SHOULD
BE DIVIDED BETWEEN THE RESEARCHERS WHO PRODUCED IT AND THE
FARMERS WHO HAD BEEN INVOLVED IN PREVIOUS GENERATIONS OF
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 04 ROME 03648 03 OF 06 240912Z
TRADITIONAL BREEDING TO PRODUCE THE "BIOTECH" PROGENITOR.
SHE ALSO EXPRESSED CONCERN OVER THE POSSIBILITY THAT A
COUNTRY'S MICROORGANISM MIGHT BE PATENTED BY AN OUTSIDER,
REQUIRING THE COUNTRY TO PAY ROYALTIES FOR THE USE OF ITS
INDIGENOUS GENETIC MATERIAL. ON A PRACTICAL NOTE, SHE
COMMENTED THAT SCIENTISTS NEED TRAINING IN NEGOTIATION AND
KNOWLEDGE ABOUT WHAT IS PATENTABLE. TODAY'S UNIVERSITY
RESEARCH SYSTEM REWARDS SCIENTISTS FOR PUBLISHING WORK
(LEAVING IT IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN) RATHER THAN PATENTING IT.
TO INDUCE RESEARCHERS TO PATENT, IT IS NECESSARY TO INCREASE
THE PRESTIGE OF PATENTS AND INCREASE THE FINANCIAL BENEFITS
THAT THEY OFFER TO SCIENTISTS. TO MAKE BIOTECH MORE
AVAILABLE TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, SHE RECOMMENDED
DIFFERENTIAL PRICING SCHEMES AND STRESSED THE NEED FOR
EFFECTIVE HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT. TO IMPROVE THE
PUBLIC IMAGE OF BIOTECH, RESEARCHERS SHOULD AVOID OVER-
HYPING NEW TECHNOLOGIES BEFORE THEY CAN BE RELEASED,
INADVERTENTLY SETTING THE STAGE FOR THE TYPE OF
DISAPPOINTMENT GENERATED BY THE YET UNMATERIALIZED PROMISES
OF GOLDEN RICE. AS REGARDS RESEARCH AND PUBLIC-PRIVATE
PARTNERSHIPS, RAO COMMENTED THAT EFFORTS IN INDIA WERE BEING
TARGETED TO ITS SPECIFIC NEEDS, SUCH AS DROUGHT AND SALINITY
RESISTANCE AND NUTRITION. BIOTECH INNOVATION IN INDIA DOES
NOT SEEK TO REDUCE LABOR BECAUSE LABOR IS ABUNDANT.

UNCLASSIFIED

UNCLASSIFIED PTQ6394

PAGE 01 ROME 03648 04 OF 06 240913Z
ACTION EB-00

INFO LOG-00 NP-00 AF-00 AGRE-00 AID-00 CEA-01 CIAE-00
COME-00 CTME-00 DODE-00 ITCE-00 DOTE-00 WHA-00 SRPP-00
EAP-00 EXME-00 EUR-00 E-00 FAAE-00 UTED-00 VC-00
FRB-00 HHS-01 H-01 TEDE-00 INR-00 IO-00 ITC-01
LAB-01 L-00 VCE-00 AC-01 NEA-00 NSAE-00 OES-01
OIC-02 OMB-01 OPIC-01 ACE-00 SP-00 SSO-00 SS-00
STR-00 TEST-00 TRSE-00 USIE-00 SA-00 DRL-02 G-00
NFAT-00 SAS-00 /013W
-------------- CF7DDC 240913Z /38
P 240908Z JUL 02
FM AMEMBASSY ROME
TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 5059
INFO USMISSION GENEVA
EU MEMBER STATES COLLECTIVE
AMCONSUL FLORENCE
AMCONSUL MILAN
AMCONSUL NAPLES
AMEMBASSY BRASILIA
AMEMBASSY HARARE
AMEMBASSY PRETORIA
AMEMBASSY MANILA
AMEMBASSY MEXICO
AMEMBASSY NEW DELHI
AMEMBASSY BEIJING
AMEMBASSY BUENOS AIRES
AMEMBASSY NAIROBI
USINT HAVANA
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 02 ROME 03648 04 OF 06 240913Z
NSC WASHDC

UNCLAS SECTION 04 OF 06 ROME 003648

SIPDIS

USAID FOR JOSETTE LEWIS
USDA WASHDC FOR JUNE BLALOCK
STATE FOR SCIENCE ADVISOR NEUREITER
EB FOR A/S WAYNE, PDAS DONNELLY, DAS GADSDEN
EB/TPP/ATT FOR PEREZ
E FOR SHUB
EUR/ERA FOR HEN-NIL
OES FOR A/S TURNER, PDAS ROCK
STATE PASS USTR FOR STROJE, NOVELLI
STATE PASS USDA FOR APHIS:SMCCAMMON, USDA/FAS:BLUM
USDA/OS/HEGWOOD
STATE PASS FDA FOR EFLAMM
NSC FOR EDSON

E.O. 12958: DECL: N/A
TAGS: AORC EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO IT FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO
SUBJECT: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SEEK EMPOWERMENT IN BIOTECH
FROM INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

EAST ASIA: HELPING IPR KEEP UP WITH RESEARCH
-------------- -

10. THE REPRESENTATIVES OF EAST ASIA DIFFERED SIGNIFICANTLY
IN THEIR CONCERNS FROM THEIR SOUTH ASIAN AND AFRICAN
COUNTERPARTS. MAKING LITTLE ISSUE OF BIODIVERSITY CONCERNS,
THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE PHILIPPINES AND CHINA FOCUSED ON
THE NEED TO ADDRESS THEIR IP CONSTRAINTS FROM THE
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 03 ROME 03648 04 OF 06 240913Z
PERSPECTIVE OF INNOVATORS. IN THE PHILIPPINES, WHERE MOST
OF THE RESEARCH IS BEING DONE IN UNIVERSITIES, TRAINING
COURSES AND SEMINARS INCREASE IP AWARENESS, IP AUDITS ARE
CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE TO ADDRESS UNRESOLVED
IP ISSUES IN ON-GOING PROJECTS, AND ATTEMPTS ARE MADE TO
ESTABLISH CLEAR COMMERCIALIZATION SCHEMES FOR RESEARCH-
GENERATED IPS. CHINA NOTED THAT IT IS DEVELOPING ONE OF THE
LARGEST PUBLIC BIOTECH PROGRAMS IN THE WORLD AND IS SEEKING
TO IMPROVE RESEARCH CAPACITY AND IMPROVE BIOTECH MANAGEMENT.

LATIN AMERICA: CUBA'S AMBITION, ILLEGAL PLANTING ELSEWHERE
-------------- --------------

11. AMONG THE LATIN AMERICA PARTICIPANTS, CUBA'S PUBLIC
BIOTECH RESEARCH PROGRAM STOOD OUT AS THE MOST AMBITIOUS
(OR, AT THE LEAST, CARLOS BORROTO, CUBA'S REPRESENTATIVE,
WAS THE MOST ENTHUSIASTIC ABOUT HIS COUNTRY'S PUBLIC
RESEARCH SECTOR). BORROTO EXPLAINED THAT BIOTECH RECEIVED
HUGE GOVERNMENT INVESTMENT ($1 BILLION) AND TREATS THE
DOMESTIC MARKET AS ITS FIRST PRIORITY, CONCENTRATING ON FOOD
SECURITY AND SOME EXPORTS. HE NOTED THAT, ALTHOUGH PATENTS
WERE NOT SEEN AS A PRIORITY UP TO THE BEGINNING OF THE
1990S, RESEARCHERS ARE NOW LOOKING AT THE WORLD PATENT
SITUATION AND TRYING TO DESIGN PROJECTS THAT WILL FILL IN
GAPS.


12. ALEJANDRO BLANCO-LABRA OF THE CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION Y
DE ESTUDIOS AVANZADOS-IPN (CINVESTAV), THE MEXICAN
REPRESENTATIVE, SKIRTED QUESTIONS ABOUT LEGISLATION THAT HAS
OFFICIALLY BARRED BIOTECH RESEARCH IN MEXICO WITH THE
COMMENT THAT HE HOPED THINGS WOULD SOON CHANGE. HE NOTED
THAT FOREIGN COMPANIES MOST OFTEN TOOK ADVANTAGE OF THE
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 04 ROME 03648 04 OF 06 240913Z
PATENT SYSTEM IN MEXICO. ONLY FIVE PERCENT OF THE BIOTECH
PATENTS ARE HELD BY MEXICANS, WHILE FIFTY PERCENT ARE HELD
BY U.S. COMPANIES OR INDIVIDUALS. HE ECHOED THE INDIAN
REPRESENTATIVE'S COMMENT THAT RESEARCH INCENTIVES WERE
ACADEMICALLY ORIENTED AND DID NOT REWARD TECHNOLOGY
TRANSFER. HE LISTED LACK OF VENTURE CAPITAL AS A CONSTRAINT
TO BIOTECH RESEARCH. COMMENT: THIS STATEMENT REFLECTS A
FREQUENTLY HEARD AND NAVE VIEW OF VENTURE CAPITALISTS, WHO
ARE BLAMED FOR LACK OF INTERESTS IN MARKETS WHERE SCIENTIFIC
INNOVATION IS RARELY TRANSFORMED TO PATENTABLE INVENTIONS.
END COMMENT.


13. MARIA SAMPAIO, AN EXPERT FROM THE BRAZILIAN AGRICULTURE
RESEARCH CORPORATION (EMBRAPA), COMMENTED THAT ITS PARTNERS
IN GM RESEARCH HAVE BEEN MOSTLY THE SAME AS THOSE IN
TRADITIONAL BREEDING METHODS AND NOTED THAT IT IS IMPORTANT
THAT FUNDS GENERATED FROM BIOTECH GO BACK INTO THE RESEARCH
PROCESS. SHE CALLED FOR A EUROPEAN-DRIVEN REVIEW OF THE
PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE AND NOTED THAT THE EU'S ATTEMPT TO
SHIFT ITS VIEWS INTO INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS COULD HAVE
HIGHLY NEGATIVE EFFECTS ON COUNTRIES LIKE BRAZIL, WHERE
FARMERS HAVE ILLEGALLY PLANTED GM CROPS WHOSE APPROVAL HAS
BEEN HELD UP FOR POLITICAL REASONS. BRAZILIAN FARMERS,
BECAUSE THEY CAN SAVE 30-40 PERCENT IN PRODUCTION COSTS,

UNCLASSIFIED

UNCLASSIFIED PTQ6396

PAGE 01 ROME 03648 05 OF 06 240913Z
ACTION EB-00

INFO LOG-00 NP-00 AF-00 AGRE-00 AID-00 CEA-01 CIAE-00
COME-00 CTME-00 DODE-00 ITCE-00 DOTE-00 WHA-00 SRPP-00
EAP-00 EXME-00 EUR-00 E-00 FAAE-00 UTED-00 VC-00
FRB-00 HHS-01 H-01 TEDE-00 INR-00 IO-00 ITC-01
LAB-01 L-00 VCE-00 AC-01 NEA-00 NSAE-00 OES-01
OIC-02 OMB-01 OPIC-01 ACE-00 SP-00 SSO-00 SS-00
STR-00 TEST-00 TRSE-00 USIE-00 SA-00 DRL-02 G-00
NFAT-00 SAS-00 /013W
-------------- CF7DEA 240913Z /38
P 240908Z JUL 02
FM AMEMBASSY ROME
TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 5060
INFO USMISSION GENEVA
EU MEMBER STATES COLLECTIVE
AMCONSUL FLORENCE
AMCONSUL MILAN
AMCONSUL NAPLES
AMEMBASSY BRASILIA
AMEMBASSY HARARE
AMEMBASSY PRETORIA
AMEMBASSY MANILA
AMEMBASSY MEXICO
AMEMBASSY NEW DELHI
AMEMBASSY BEIJING
AMEMBASSY BUENOS AIRES
AMEMBASSY NAIROBI
USINT HAVANA
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 02 ROME 03648 05 OF 06 240913Z
NSC WASHDC

UNCLAS SECTION 05 OF 06 ROME 003648

SIPDIS

USAID FOR JOSETTE LEWIS
USDA WASHDC FOR JUNE BLALOCK
STATE FOR SCIENCE ADVISOR NEUREITER
EB FOR A/S WAYNE, PDAS DONNELLY, DAS GADSDEN
EB/TPP/ATT FOR PEREZ
E FOR SHUB
EUR/ERA FOR HEN-NIL
OES FOR A/S TURNER, PDAS ROCK
STATE PASS USTR FOR STROJE, NOVELLI
STATE PASS USDA FOR APHIS:SMCCAMMON, USDA/FAS:BLUM
USDA/OS/HEGWOOD
STATE PASS FDA FOR EFLAMM
NSC FOR EDSON

E.O. 12958: DECL: N/A
TAGS: AORC EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO IT FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO
SUBJECT: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SEEK EMPOWERMENT IN BIOTECH
FROM INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

HAVE BEEN PLANTING GM CROPS THAT BRAZIL HAS NOT YET
APPROVED. IN THE MID- TO LATE 1990S, THE BRAZILIAN
GOVERNMENT AND MONSANTO WORKED TOGETHER TO ESTABLISH A FIVE-
YEAR SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM TO MONITOR CROP RESEARCH IN THE
FIELD. ALTHOUGH THE BIOSAFETY COMMISSION HAS ALREADY
APPROVED THE PROGRAM, POLITICAL DAWDLING HAS KEPT IT FROM
GOING FORWARD. ON THEIR PART, FARMERS HAVE NOT BOTHERED TO
WAIT FOR THE POLITICAL GO-AHEAD AND HAVE, FOR FINANCIAL
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 03 ROME 03648 05 OF 06 240913Z
REASONS, ADOPTED GM CROPS. THE ARGENTINE NOTED THAT
PLANTING OF SOYBEANS IN HIS COUNTRY WAS LIKEWISE DRIVEN BY
THE ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS OF FARMERS.

LENDING A HAND: CORPORATIONS, DONOR AGENCIES, ETC.
-------------- --------------

14. EXPERTS FROM CORPORATIONS, CONSULTATIVE GROUPS, AND
DONOR AGENCIES ALSO PARTICIPATED IN THE CONSULTATION. JUNE
BLALOCK OF USDA SPOKE OF THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
OFFICES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF IPR ISSUES THAT IMPACT
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH.


15. REPRESENTATIVES FROM UPOV AND WIPO DISCUSSED THE ROLE
THAT THEY PLAY IN ENABLING REGULATORY ENVIRONMENTS. IN
RESPONDING TO QUESTIONS REGARDING UPOV'S SUITABILITY FOR
BIOTECH EVENTS, THE UPOV REPRESENTATIVE RESPONDED THAT THEY
WERE WORKING ON RESOLVING APPARENT CONTRADICTIONS BETWEEN
THE UPOV CONVENTION AND THE TRIPS AGREEMENT. BILL LESSER OF
CORNELL UNIVERSITY SPOKE ABOUT POLICY OPTIONS AT THE
REGIONAL LEVEL, AND REPRESENTATIVES FROM CGIAR DISCUSSED THE
POTENTIAL ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH
CENTERS (IARCS) IN FACILITATING THE TRANSFER OF PROTECTED
TECHNOLOGY.


16. SHAWN N. SULLIVAN, A LAWYER FOR THE CGIAR CENTER
CYMMIT, SPOKE ABOUT HIS PERSONAL EXPERIENCES IN DEVELOPING
CYMMIT'S IPR FRAMEWORK. HE NOTED THAT LEAVING TECHNOLOGY IN
THE PUBLIC DOMAIN SERVES AS A DISINCENTIVE FOR ITS
COMMERCIALIZATION BECAUSE COMPANIES WILL BE MORE INCLINED TO
USE THEIR OWN PATENTED MATERIAL, EVEN IF IT IS INFERIOR. AS
A CONSEQUENCE, CYMMIT HAS DECIDED TO APPLY FOR IP PROTECTION
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 04 ROME 03648 05 OF 06 240913Z
ON A STRATEGIC CASE-BY-CASE BASIS WITH THE KNOWLEDGE THAT
IPR CAN SERVE AS A BARGAINING CHIP WITH PRIVATE
CORPORATIONS.


17. REPRESENTATIVES FROM MONSANTO AND SYNGENTA, TWO OF THE
LARGEST MULTINATIONAL BIOTECH CORPORATIONS, SPOKE ABOUT
DIFFERENT PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS ESTABLISHED TO ASSIST
THE DEVELOPING WORLD WITH BIOTECH INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY
TRANSFER. TOGETHER WITH PUBLICLY FUNDED INSTITUTIONS, THEY
ARE WORKING ON CROPS AS DIVERSE AS CASSAVA, MUSTARD OIL, AND
PAPAYA. JILL MONTGOMERY, THE DIRECTOR OF TECHNOLOGY
COOPERATION AT MONSANTO, NOTED THAT THERE EXISTS A GOOD DEAL
OF IGNORANCE REGARDING SUCH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS AND
SUGGESTED THAT SPREADING INFORMATION ABOUT THEM MIGHT HELP
BIOTECH'S IMAGE.


18. PETER MATLON OF THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION PRESENTED
TWO NEW INITIATIVES THAT HIS DONOR-AGENCY IS DEVELOPING:
THE AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY FOUNDATION (AATF) AND AN
INITIATIVE TO CREATE A CLEARINGHOUSE FOR PUBLICLY HELD
AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY IN THE U.S. THE AATF, TO BE
OPERATIVE BY EARLY 2003, HAS THE OBJECTIVE OF REDUCING FOOD
INSECURITY BY FACILITATING THE DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER OF
RELEVANT BIOTECHNOLOGY. IN MEETINGS WITH THE "BIG FIVE"

UNCLASSIFIED

UNCLASSIFIED PTQ6397

PAGE 01 ROME 03648 06 OF 06 240913Z
ACTION EB-00

INFO LOG-00 NP-00 AF-00 AGRE-00 AID-00 CEA-01 CIAE-00
COME-00 CTME-00 DODE-00 ITCE-00 DOTE-00 WHA-00 SRPP-00
EAP-00 EXME-00 EUR-00 E-00 FAAE-00 UTED-00 VC-00
FRB-00 HHS-01 H-01 TEDE-00 INR-00 IO-00 ITC-01
LAB-01 L-00 VCE-00 AC-01 NEA-00 NSAE-00 OES-01
OIC-02 OMB-01 OPIC-01 ACE-00 SP-00 SSO-00 SS-00
STR-00 TEST-00 TRSE-00 USIE-00 SA-00 DRL-02 G-00
NFAT-00 SAS-00 /013W
-------------- CF7DF2 240913Z /38
P 240908Z JUL 02
FM AMEMBASSY ROME
TO SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 5061
INFO USMISSION GENEVA
EU MEMBER STATES COLLECTIVE
AMCONSUL FLORENCE
AMCONSUL MILAN
AMCONSUL NAPLES
AMEMBASSY BRASILIA
AMEMBASSY HARARE
AMEMBASSY PRETORIA
AMEMBASSY MANILA
AMEMBASSY MEXICO
AMEMBASSY NEW DELHI
AMEMBASSY BEIJING
AMEMBASSY BUENOS AIRES
AMEMBASSY NAIROBI
USINT HAVANA
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 02 ROME 03648 06 OF 06 240913Z
NSC WASHDC

UNCLAS SECTION 06 OF 06 ROME 003648

SIPDIS

USAID FOR JOSETTE LEWIS
USDA WASHDC FOR JUNE BLALOCK
STATE FOR SCIENCE ADVISOR NEUREITER
EB FOR A/S WAYNE, PDAS DONNELLY, DAS GADSDEN
EB/TPP/ATT FOR PEREZ
E FOR SHUB
EUR/ERA FOR HEN-NIL
OES FOR A/S TURNER, PDAS ROCK
STATE PASS USTR FOR STROJE, NOVELLI
STATE PASS USDA FOR APHIS:SMCCAMMON, USDA/FAS:BLUM
USDA/OS/HEGWOOD
STATE PASS FDA FOR EFLAMM
NSC FOR EDSON

E.O. 12958: DECL: N/A
TAGS: AORC EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO EAGR ETRD ECON TBIO IT FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO ITAORC FAO
SUBJECT: DEVELOPING COUNTRIES SEEK EMPOWERMENT IN BIOTECH
FROM INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

BIOTECH CORPORATIONS, ROCKEFELLER HAS FOUND THAT THESE
COMPANIES ARE ANXIOUS TO SHARE IP FOR HUMANITARIAN PURPOSES
SUBJECT TO INDUSTRY-DEFINED SAFEGUARDS. AFRICAN DELEGATES,
WHILE APPLAUDING THE PROGRAM, AGAIN RAISED CONCERNS ABOUT
THE AATF'S SUSTAINABILITY.


19. OTTAVIO JANNI(ITALY) OF THE MILAN BASED INSTITUTO DI
RICERCA SULLA DINAMICA DEI SISTEMI ECONOMIC GAVE ONE OF THE
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 03 ROME 03648 06 OF 06 240913Z
MORE DIVERGENT VIEWS ON IPR, STATING THAT, PARTICULARLY IN
THE CONTEXT OF PHARMACEUTICALS, IPR WAS BEING USED TO
HARVEST THE BIOLOGICAL PATRIMONY OF INDIGENOUS CULTURES.


20. COMMENT: DEVELOPING COUNTRY REPRESENTATIVES DID NOT
REJECT IPR ON IDEOLOGICAL GROUNDS OR COMPLAIN ABOUT
MULTINATIONALS (AS MIGHT HAVE BEEN EXPECTED). INSTEAD,
INDIA, BRAZIL, CUBA, AND OTHERS STAKED OUT THEIR GROUND AS
POTENTIAL INNOVATORS AND SHOWED AN ENTHUSIASM TO USE IP TO
PROTECT THEIR INNOVATIONS. WHILE THE DESIGN OF THE WORKSHOP
(A GATHERING OF BIOTECH IPR EXPERTS) PROBABLY SELF-SELECTED
PARTICIPANTS OF PRO-BIOTECH STANCE, THERE WERE MORE IPR
INTERESTS IN COMMON BETWEEN THE LARGE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
AND DEVELOPED COUNTRIES THAN DIFFERENCES. GAPS, HOWEVER,
WERE EVIDENT. FOR EXAMPLE, PARTICIPANTS ACKNOWLEDGED THAT
MANY OBSTACLES BEYOND IPR ISSUES PLAGUED DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES' ACCESS TO BIOTECHNOLOGY. THEY ACCENTUATED THE
NEED FOR GREATER SCIENTIFIC PARTICIPATION IN POLICY MAKING
AND NOTED THAT THE PLACEMENT OF BIOTECH REGULATORY BODIES
(IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL, AGRICULTURAL, ETC. MINISTRY) HAS A
SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON THE BIOTECH REGULATIONS THAT ARE
ADOPTED. REPRESENTATIVES FROM CUBA AND BRAZIL, AMONG
OTHERS, COMMENTED THAT, EVEN WHEN BIOTECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS ARE
DEEMED SAFE FOR DOMESTIC MARKETS, CONCERNS ABOUT BEING ABLE
TO EXPORT PRODUCTS (PARTICULARLY TO EUROPE) PRECLUDE THEIR
BEING POLITICALLY APPROVED. IN THIS REGARD, CUBA POINTED
OUT THE IRONY OF A EUROPEAN'S CONCERN THAT HIS CARCINOGENIC
CIGAR MIGHT BE GENETICALLY MODIFIED. ULTIMATELY, SEVERAL
ATTENDEES ARGUED, THE CONSUMERS AND FARMERS WILL BE THE ONE
TO CHOOSE WHETHER OR NOT TO ADOPT GENETICALLY MODIFIED
CROPS. END COMMENT
UNCLASSIFIED

PAGE 04 ROME 03648 06 OF 06 240913Z


21. THIS CABLE WAS PREPARED BY SCIENCE INTERN LEIGH SYLVAN.

TAMLYN

UNCLASSIFIED

>
2002ROME03648 - Classification: UNCLASSIFIED