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2007-03-08 22:18:00
Embassy Mexico
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DE RUEHME #1196/01 0672218
R 082218Z MAR 07
						UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 09 MEXICO 001196 




E.O. 12958: N/A

REF: A. 06 STATE 202745 B. 06 MEXICO 6568 C. 06 MEXICO 3423

NOTE: This is the first part of a three part cable. End note.


1. (SBU) The mission's point of contact on the
Anti-Trafficking in Persons Report is Poloff Walter R.
Miller. He may be reached by telephone at (52) (55)
5080-2000, ext. 4806, or by fax at (52) (55) 5080-2247. Post
requests that the names of the non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) working with the Government of Mexico (GOM) providing
victim protection and assistance not be disclosed in this
context. Post also requests that the names and details of
ongoing investigations not be made public. NOTE: This is a
two part cable. End note.

2. (SBU) Mexico is a country of origin, transit, and
destination for persons trafficked for sexual and labor
exploitation. While there are no reliable figures as to the
extent of the trafficking problem, Mexico's geographic
location along primary transportation routes for illegal
migration into the U.S. as well as the country's high level
of organized criminal gang activity leaves little doubt that
the transnational and domestic trafficking numbers are

3. (SBU) The GOM has made significant and laudable
advancements to address trafficking in persons in Mexico over
the past year. While advancements are uneven across federal
agencies, and expertise needs to be developed at all levels
of government, the GOM has proactively addressed the
trafficking problem, with measurable results, and can be
expected to continue to build on its successes. In
particular, the Federal Preventive Police (PFP) has been
assertive in pursuing and investigating trafficking cases, in
cooperation with other agencies. The GOM still needs to
advance in the prosecution of cases and develop a better
system to provide protection to victims. A significant
obstacle preventing full GOM engagement in combating
trafficking is the lack of a federal law explicitly
criminalizing the activity. A bill currently being reviewed
by MexicoQ,s Chamber of Deputies, however, does provide
federal sanctions. GOM reports that it expects the
legislation will be ready for passage in April. (MexicoQ,s
Senate approved the legislation in December 2005). Despite
the delays in Congress, the government has utilized current
legislation available to fight trafficking Q) for instance,
the smuggling of undocumented aliens, pimping and corruption
of minors. At the state level, legislatures have surged ahead
of their colleagues in the capital by passing three
anti-trafficking laws.

4. (SBU) The following significant steps forward in fighting
TIP have taken place in Mexico since the March 2006 report:

-- The states of Michoacan, Chihuahua and Guerrero (in June
2006, November 2006 and January 2007, respectively) passed

state anti-TIP legislation.

-- The Congress passed reforms to the law against organized
crime and corresponding changes to the penal code to
strengthen the penalties against the commercial exploitation
of minors in February 2007. The bill awaits the signature of
the president.

-- The Federal Preventive Police (PFP) appointed a designated
TIP coordinator, who also leads the GOM Interinstitutional
Working Group on Trafficking.

-- 60 PFP officers participated in a 40-hour TIP training
program and 300 PFP officers participated in a four-hour
module training on trafficking at the police academy, among
numerous other training courses in the last year.

-- The PFP established five vetted investigative units, made
up of 25 investigators, to exclusively pursue trafficking

-- PFP and the Mexican Senate launched separate media
campaigns raising awareness of trafficking.

-- The Attorney GeneralQ,s Office (PGR) prevailed in an
appeal on TIP-related charges and convicted Consuelo Carreto
Valencia, a leader of the Carreto trafficking ring, with a
sentence of more than 25 years.

-- GOM extradited Consuelo Carreto Valencia to the U.S. on 19
January 2007 to face trafficking charges.

MEXICO 00001196 002 OF 009

-- On July 15, the US extradited to Mexico suspected
trafficker Jean Succar Kuri, a prominent businessman, who is
currently detained in Cancun and facing trafficking-related

-- INM issued the newly authorized humanitarian visas to
trafficking victims, contingent on their participation in the

-- CNDH issued its first recommendation towards the federal
government on a trafficking case.



5. (SBU) QUESTION A. Is the country a country of origin,
transit, or destination for internationally trafficked men,
women, or children? Provide, where possible, numbers or
estimates for each group; how they were trafficked, to where,
and for what purpose. Does the trafficking occur within the
country's borders? Does it occur in territory outside of the
government's control (e.g. in a civil war situation)? Are
any estimates or reliable numbers available as to the extent
or magnitude of the problem? What is (are) the source(s) of
available information on trafficking in persons or what plans
are in place (if any) to undertake documentation of
trafficking? How reliable are the numbers and these sources?
Are certain groups of persons more at risk of being
trafficked (e.g. women and children, boys versus girls,
certain ethnic groups, refugees, etc.)?

POST RESPONSE: Mexico is a country of origin, transit, and
destination for trafficked men, women, and children for
purposes of sexual and labor exploitation. Of those
transited through or destined for Mexico, the vast majority
of trafficking victims come from Central America, with a
lesser number of victims originating from South America, the
Caribbean, Eastern Europe, and Asia. Those in transit are
largely trafficked to the United States. Most victims
originating from Mexico also are trafficked to the U.S., with
smaller numbers to Europe, Asia and Canada. Mexico has a
significant problem with internal trafficking; often women
and girls are trafficked to the northern border, most
prominently Tijuana, or to cities where sex tourism is
prevalent, like Cancun and Acapulco.

According to a 2005 article (Asociacion Mexicana en Direccion
de Recursos Humanos) and corroborated by experts, the
following forms of trafficking can be associated with
geographic regions of Mexico: domestic work and forced
begging (principally among children, the elderly and
disabled) are predominant in Mexico City, the State of Mexico
and urban areas; labor exploitation is predominant in Oaxaca,
Chiapas, Chihuahua and Veracruz; trafficking linked to
cultural traditions (parents sell, rent or barter children
for money or business) is prevalent in Oaxaca, Chiapas and
Guerrero; and the sexual exploitation of children and women
is prevalent in Acapulco, Cancun, Puerto Vallarta, Baja
California and Mexico City. Many victims of internal
trafficking in Mexico originated in Tlaxcala.

There are no reliable statistics on the extent of the
trafficking problem. The government and civil society have
expressed interest in conducting national studies on
trafficking, but these initiatives have not been realized.
Certain studies have targeted specific populations or
geographic areas. The National Institute for Women
(INMUJERES) - in collaboration with the Inter-American
Commission for Women, Organization for American States (OAS)
and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) - has
completed and expects to publish imminently a study on
trafficking in the southern region of the country, titled
Q&The Trafficking of Women, Adolescents and Children in
Mexico: An exploratory study in Tapachula, Chiapas.Q8

Some statistics are available on specific trafficking victims
and generally vulnerable populations. Mexico's family
welfare agency, Desarollo Integral de la Familia (DIF),
reported in July 2006 that approximately 20 thousand Mexican
children are sexually exploited each year. This is an
increase from an annual estimate of 16 thousand sexually
exploited children according to the study "Stolen
Childhood," published in 2000 by DIF, UNICEF and the Centro
de Investigaciones y Estudios en Antropologia Social
(Ciesas). The INM reported that approximately 180,000
migrants, the vast majority from Central America, were
detained in 2006; approximately 30 thousand were women and
two thousand were minors. However, perhaps up to half a
million in total crossed the border during the year.

MEXICO 00001196 003 OF 009

Other information on trafficking patterns that are available
come from NGOs or academics; though, most often these reports
tend to contain more anecdotal evidence than concrete
statistics. In the April 2006 report by the UN Office on
Drugs and Crime (UNODC), "Trafficking in Persons: Global
Patterns," Mexico was ranked "high" (4 on a scale of 5) in
the incidence of reporting of origin countries; "high" (4
on a scale of 5) in the incidence of reporting of transit
countries; and "medium" (3 on a scale of 5) in the
incidence of reporting of destination countries.

The populations most vulnerable to trafficking tend to be
women and children (both boys and girls), undocumented
migrants (most often from Central America), as well as
indigenous groups.

6. (SBU) QUESTION B. Please provide a general overview of the
trafficking situation in the country and any changes since
the last TIP report (e.g. changes in direction). Also
briefly explain the political will to address trafficking in
persons. Other items to address may include: what kind of
conditions are the victims trafficked into? Which
populations are targeted by the traffickers? Who are the
traffickers? What methods are used to approach victims? (are
they offered lucrative jobs, sold by their families,
approached by friends of friends, etc.?) What methods are
used to move the victims (e.g., are false documents being

POST RESPONSE: Political will to address the problem is high,
evidenced by actions taken by the federal and state
governments since the last TIP report. Three states passed
anti-trafficking legislation; the federal government
extradited a convicted trafficker to the U.S.; MexicoQ,s
Federal Police (PFP) established five investigative units
exclusively dedicated to TIP; the National Migration
Institute (INM) issued new humanitarian visas to trafficking
victims; both the Senate and PFP undertook national media
campaigns targeting TIP; federal and state agencies sponsored
at least four conferences; PFP, INM and state law enforcement
undertook various training programs on trafficking, including
a 40-hour training for federal investigators. Moreover, the
media has covered the issues in scores of newspapers articles
in the last year. Civil society, in its efforts to confront
the problem, has significantly raised the profile of TIP in
Mexico and has made measurable advancements in constructive
cooperation with the government.

Nonetheless, government efforts to fight trafficking need to
expand to all federal agencies and national anti-TIP efforts
need to be based on a comprehensive legal framework. While
the Senate passed federal anti-trafficking legislation in
December 2005, the lower chamber of Congress is still
considering the legislation.

Particularly notable in the past year, three states Q)
Michoacan, Chihuahua and Guerrero Q) have shown resolve in
the battle against TIP by passing legislation criminalizing
trafficking, and Oaxaca is currently considering the same
legislation. Many states have held training sessions (see
paragraph 25) for state security forces, and Quintana Roo and
Guerrero expressed interest in creating task forces to
address TIP. The increase of political will among states is
significant in MexicoQ,s federal system, where states have
responsibility to take the lead in pursuing many criminal

Because of the dearth of concrete statistics on trafficking,
the increase in the numbers of victims or the kinds of
trafficking victims is difficult to ascertain. The Bilateral
Security Corridor Coalition (BSCC) reported a new trend, the
trafficking of minors from the US for prostitution in Mexican
border towns, most prominently in Tijuana. In July DIF stated
publicly that an estimated 20 thousand children are sexually
exploited annually in Mexico. However, it is difficult to
determine whether the increase is significant. While this is
an increase over the 16 thousand DIF estimated in the 2000
Q&Stolen ChildhoodQ8 report, the 2000 report based its
figures on studies in only six cities and was one of the
first studies of its kind in Mexico.

Within Mexico, women and children from Mexico's poorest
regions of Mexico move to the urban, tourist, and the
northern border areas seeking economic opportunity, but they
often end up working in the commercial sex industry or
domestic work (or both) due to trickery, threats, or physical
violence by traffickers.

In addition, the continuing patterns of illegal migration
from Mexico and Central America into the U.S. also put a

MEXICO 00001196 004.2 OF 009

larger number of vulnerable persons at risk for coming into
contact with traffickers. Migrants from Mexico and Central
America (especially women and children) are frequently
smuggled into the U.S. with promises of a lucrative job only
to find themselves forced into prostitution or debt-bondage
working conditions. Some traffickers falsely offer victims
help in reuniting them with family members in the U.S. Other
common methods used to approach/target victims include
placing ads in newspapers that invite girls to participate in
international exchanges or to start lucrative modeling
careers. Once the girl is isolated from family and friends,
she is forced into prostitution.

The widespread use of professional alien smugglers,
contracted to help illegal migrants transit Mexico and cross
into the U.S., increases the risk falling prey to trafficking
networks. Traffickers often employ alien smugglers to both
target and transport victims. Alien smugglers use a wide
variety of techniques to get people across the border,
including false documents, hidden compartments, and dangerous
desert crossings. Among legitimate transportation services,
taxi drivers serve as guides and facilitators for sex
tourists, common in border towns like Tijuana.

Many organized criminal organizations from Mexico and other
countries use Mexico as a staging and training area for women
and young girls destined for brothels and table dance bars in
the U.S. There is reported involvement of criminal gangs from
Mexico, Central America, Russia, Japan, China and several
other countries in the trafficking of victims across the
U.S.-Mexico border. Trafficking is also operated by small
family networks.

For labor exploitation, traffickers often acquire legal work
documents to transport victims to factories, where employers
then confiscate documents and impose extreme working
conditions. Regional migrants within Mexico (such as farm
workers from southern Mexico seeking work in northern states)
are also victims of such exploitation.

7. (SBU) QUESTION C. What are the limitations on the
government's ability to address this problem in practice?
For example, is funding for police or other institutions
inadequate? Is overall corruption a problem? Does the
government lack the resources to aid victims?

POST RESPONSE: The principle obstacle to effectively
addressing trafficking in Mexico is the lack of a federal
law, which would define the crime; delineate prevention,
prosecution and victim-protection responsibilities among
government agencies; and mandate personnel and funding to
accomplish those responsibilities.

TIP must also compete with other highly pressing law
enforcement priorities in Mexico. In recent years, the GOM
has focused an increasing amount of human and financial
resources toward the fight against narcotics trafficking and
violence associated with the drug trade. Although
counter-TIP initiatives are given priority, TIP enforcers
also must address the broader problem of spiraling violence
and criminality in Mexico. The GOM puts scarce TIP resources
to good use, however, and has been willing to accept USG
assistance. Funds dedicated by the POTUS initiative
contributed significantly to local efforts, particularly
through ICE-coordinated law enforcement training, as well as
USAID technical assistance programs. In addition, USAIDQ,s
TIP Shelter Project is working to strengthen current shelters
willing to accept trafficking victims, giving Mexico time to
establish its own shelters dedicated to trafficking victims.
DOJ plans to provide a program of legal technical assistance
and training.

Last year, the GOM appointed a high level PFP officer
responsible for trafficking Q) Jose Nemecio Lugo Felix,
Director General for Smuggling and Contraband (with
responsibility for trafficking) Q) and charged him with
leading the GOM Interinstitutional Working Group on
Trafficking in order to improve government cooperation. The
appointment of this official has added significant momentum
to the fight against trafficking.

Training needs to continue and expand in the areas of
awareness-raising (the distinction between trafficking and
smuggling remains unclear, particularly among local law
enforcement); the identification and interaction with
victims; and the provision of services to trafficking victims.

A culture of impunity persists and corruption exists at all
levels of government, especially at the state and local
level, exacerbating the problem since traffickers can operate
without fear of prosecution by simply paying off authorities.

MEXICO 00001196 005 OF 009

8. (SBU) QUESTION D. To what extent does the government
systematically monitor its anti-trafficking efforts (on all
fronts -- prosecution, prevention and victim protection) and
periodically make available, publicly or privately and
directly or through regional/international organizations, its
assessments of these anti-trafficking efforts?

POST RESPONSE. The GOM is increasing its capacity to
systematically monitor its anti-trafficking efforts. The PFP
has provided to USG personnel carefully prepared
presentations on trafficking cases. Post is not aware of the
GOM making any of this information public. PFP launched an
internal database to track trafficking cases, principally for
the use of its TIP investigators. However, because of the
change in government in December 2006, the database has been
inoperable but is expected to be reconstituted again under
the new PFP anti-trafficking leadership (see paragraph 10).

The PFP and Save the Children have entered into a formal
collaborative relationship, to establish and manage an
internet-based database among a network of civil society
organizations that will help track missing persons, including
potential trafficking victims.

The Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS) at post is exploring
options to provide PGR with case tracking software.



9. (SBU) QUESTION A. Does the government acknowledge that
trafficking is a problem in the country? If not, why not?

POST RESPONSE: The GOM acknowledges that trafficking is both
a transnational and domestic problem. GOM officials,
including senior leaders in both the Fox and Calderon
administrations, lawmakers of all political parties, state
officials and the national human rights ombudsman, continued
to speak out against trafficking throughout the year.

In May 2006, the GOM and international organizations jointly
published a book called "Trafficking in Persons: Basic
Aspects." The book provides critical information about
trafficking, defines the distinction between smuggling and
trafficking, outlines forms of exploitation, discusses the
importance of the Palermo Protocol and advocates for a
federal anti-trafficking law. The book was a collaboration
between the National Institute of Women (INMUJERES), National
Institute of Migration (INM), International Organization for
Migration (IOM), Inter-American Commission of Women (CIM),
and the Organization of American States (OAS).

During the last year, the GOM sponsored numerous seminars and
conferences that included panels on trafficking and the
promotion of a federal anti-trafficking law:

-- The National Commission for Human Rights (CNDH) and the
International Organization for Migration (IOM) sponsored a
two-day TIP conference on 14 and 15 June 2006, "Trafficking
in Persons: Protection, Prosecution and Prevention," that
was attended by more than 200 individuals from NGOs,
academia, federal and local law enforcement, from Guatemala
as well as Mexico. The speakers included the Governor and
Attorney General of Chiapas, the Federal Assistant Attorney
General for Organized Crime, and the president of CNDH.

-- The National Institute for Penal Sciences (INACIPE) held a
forum on the pending federal law in June 2006 that featured
speakers from the congress and other federal agencies.
INACIPE also conducted a four-part course on the subject in
June and July.

-- The Secretariat for Foreign Relations (SRE) sponsored a
conference on August 30 between all the government
secretariats involved in trafficking and the NGOs working in

the area, the first broad governmental initiative to engage
civil society on the subject.

-- The state of Jalisco held a conference on trafficking for
local government officials and civil society on November 30,
with the technical assistance of USAID and the NGO Proteja.

-- The state of Chihuahua held a conference called
"Trafficking in Personas: Current Situation, Perspectives
and Challenges" on January 16-17, 2007, with the technical
assistance of USG agencies. The conference followed the
passage of its anti-trafficking legislation, and featured the
state attorney general as a speaker as well as a variety of
civil society members.

MEXICO 00001196 006 OF 009

In the summer of 2006, the Mexican Senate launched 30 second
commercials to raise awareness about TIP and to highlight its
recent legislative accomplishments. In October, the PFP
launched a media campaign on TIP through spots shown in movie
theaters, on television and radio and through print
materials, like posters on public buses; the Secretary of
Public Security publicly opened the campaign.

The PFP Director General for Smuggling and Contraband (with
responsibility for trafficking), Jose Nemecio Lugo Felix,
lead the GOM Interinstitutional Working Group on Trafficking
and made a concerted effort to speak publicly on the subject
in the last year, such as at the following events:

-- "International Convention on the Human Rights of Migrant
Women: Actions for their Protection," sponsored by SRE and
UN agencies (Mexico, 24-25 April);
-- "Trafficking in Persons: Protection, Prosecution and
Prevention," sponsored by IOM and CNDH (Tapachula, Chiapas,
14-15 June);
-- Mexico's meetings at the UN on its report to the
Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
Against Women, (New York, 17 August);
-- The conference between NGOs and the GOM agencies on
trafficking, organized by the SRE (Mexico City, 30 August);
-- Third Session of Conference of the Parties to the UN
Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its
Protocols (Vienna, 9-18 October).
-- Conference on Trafficking in Persons, sponsored by the
UNAM Law School (Mexico City, 26 October).

Nemecio Lugo also gave interviews on trafficking to Radio
Formula (26 July), Radio Enfoque (12 September), and the
television program "Proyecto 40" (8 November).

On April 28, CNDH issued its first recommendation on
trafficking, suggesting measures that the INM and Secretariat
of Labor (STPS) should take to address the situation that led
to the trafficking for labor exploitation of two Chinese
nationals in Guanajuato between 2001 and 2003.

On December 15, 2005, the Mexican Senate unanimously passed
(95 to 0) a comprehensive TIP law. The legislation is
currently being considered by Mexico's Chamber of Deputies.

10. (SBU) QUESTION B. Which government agencies are involved
in anti-trafficking efforts and which agency, if any, has the

POST RESPONSE: The GOM established the Interinstitutional
Working Group on Trafficking in 2004, which includes
representatives from the Federal Preventive Police (PFP),
Attorney General's Office (PGR), National Institute of
Migration (INM), Secretariat for Foreign Relations (SRE),
Integral Development of the Family (DIF) Secretariat of
Public Security (SSP), The Secretariat of Labor (STPS),
Center for Research on National Security (CISEN), National
Institute for Women (INMUJERES), Secretariat of Health (SSA),
and the Secretariat of Tourism (SECTUR).

The PFP is the lead agency in the Interinstitutional Working
Group, possessing the law enforcement capabilities necessary
to run investigations and arrest traffickers. The PFP
Director General for Smuggling and Contraband (with
responsibility for trafficking), Jose Nemecio Lugo Felix, led
the group until January 2007. PFP worked closely with the ICE
TIP Coordinator to establish five investigative units
dedicated exclusively to trafficking cases. Many
investigations of trafficking cases have taken place and are
ongoing. PFP investigators, however, proved adept in
obtaining intelligence on trafficking cases but less
competent in investigating cases that would produce evidence
admissible in a court of law. The federal and state attorneys
general offices are still responsible for prosecuting cases.

The inauguration of President Calderon on 1 December 2006,
succeeding Vicente Fox, occasioned the kinds of personnel
changes normal to any change of government. In addition,
President Calderon mandated a significant law enforcement
reorganization, and Mexico's security forces are being
combined under the command of SSP. Nemecio Lugo, who led the
PFP trafficking efforts, was reassigned to the PGR where he
now holds the responsibility of prosecuting trafficking
cases. Post perceives this to be a positive development
because the expertise and initiative that Lugo exercised at
PFP can be brought to PGR, which previously was slow to act
on trafficking cases. The new PFP Director General in charge
of trafficking, Marcos Garcia, is reconstituting his
agency's TIP investigative units, and PFP remains the lead
agency in combating trafficking.

MEXICO 00001196 007 OF 009

11. (SBU) QUESTION C. Are there, or have there been,
government-run anti-trafficking information or education
campaigns? If so, briefly describe the campaign(s),
including their objectives and effectiveness. Do these
campaigns target potential trafficking victims and/or the
demand for trafficking (e.g. "clients" of prostitutes or
beneficiaries of forced labor)?

POST RESPONSE: As documented in last yearQ,s TIP report, the
primary focus of the GOM's anti-trafficking information and
education campaigns have focused on a National Program to
Eradicate the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Minors. The
program is administered by the DIF and is supported by
numerous executive and legislative branch entities (e.g., the
STPS, the SECTUR, and the PGR), as well as civil society
groups (the ILO in particular). DIF reported this year that
the campaign expanded to 18 states of Mexico (Baja
California, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima,
Estado de Mexico, Guerrero, Jalisco, Morelos, Nuevo Leon,
Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Sonora, Tabasco, Tlaxcala, Veracruz,
and Yucatan).

In the summer of 2006, the Mexican Senate launched 30 second
commercials to raise TIP awareness. The commercials focused
specifically on commercial sexual exploitation of minors and
publicized the legislation criminalizing trafficking that was
approved by the Senate in late 2005.

In October, the PFP launched an anti-TIP media campaign on
TIP through spots shown in movie theaters, on television and
radio and through print materials, like posters on public
buses. The campaign was aimed to raise awareness among the
general public, providing a hotline and a website to register
complaints. However, the hotline generally has been regarded
as a failure since it reportedly lacked sufficiently trained
personnel to address issues of trafficking and did not have a
referral system for TIP cases.

12. (SBU) QUESTION D. Does the government support other
programs to prevent trafficking? (e.g., to promote women's
participation in economic decision-making or efforts to keep
children in school.) Please explain.

POST RESPONSE: Yes. INMUJERES runs programs designed to
prevent discrimination against women and help them understand
their rights. In February 2007, President Calderon signed the
General Law for Women's Access to a Life Free from Violence,
which provides considerable protection to women from domestic
violence, including the eviction of abusive husbands and
penalizing the manipulation of family resources to deny the
freedom or independence of a woman. On both borders the DIF
runs an extensive network of crisis-response shelters that
protect unaccompanied minors detained while trying to enter
the U.S./depart Mexico; however, they do not provide mid- to
long-term services. The DIF also has a program to Prevent and
Combat Child Labor and Protect the Rights of Minors.

13. (SBU) QUESTION E. What is the relationship between
government officials, NGOs, other relevant organizations and
other elements of civil society on the trafficking issue?

POST RESPONSE: The relationship between government officials,
NGOs, other relevant organizations and elements of civil
society on the trafficking issue varies - generally depending
on the particular government agency and whether the
relationship is at the federal or state level. The
relationship between the GOM and civil society in any context
has traditionally been tense, but in the area of trafficking
there has been significant, if uneven, cooperation in the
last year.

By building a good relationship with INM over the last couple
years, IOM has easy access to the two large INM detention
centers in Mexico City and Tapachula. However, access varies
among NGOs: Sin Fronteras has complained of increasing
obstruction by INM for NGOs to access detainees, while Casa
Migrante has generally enjoyed easy access to the Tapachula
detention center.

In cases of identifying potential trafficking victims in
detention centers, INM defers to IOMQ,s expertise to handle
the cases. Since March 2006, INM has helped identify and
solicited IOM's assistance in four trafficking cases. The
Mexican Commission of Assistance to Refugees (COMAR) and the
Institute of Human Development (IDH - the equivalent of
state-level DIF in Chiapas) referred to IOM two more
trafficking cases in this period. Yet there is still progress
to be made. In June 2006, IOM held a meeting with INM on
establishing standard procedures for the identification and
assistance of trafficking victims in detention centers

MEXICO 00001196 008 OF 009

nationwide, but this issue has since gained little traction.
IOM made significant progress in developing an anti-TIP
committee in Tapachula, consisting of representatives from
Grupo Beta (an INM unit that provides assistance to migrants
in need), IDH, COMAR, Central American consulates, UNHCR and
a string of NGOs. The committee meets monthly, exchanges
information, and cooperates in the identification and
assistance of victims. However, IOM stated that it met some
resistance in establishing a Coordinating Committee with key
government entities at the federal level, though IOM met on
March 1 with high level SRE and INM officials who expressed
their support for its victim services programs.

NGOs and international organizations often report positive
cooperation with government agencies on the state level. IOM
receives excellent cooperation from INMUJERES on the state
level. BSCC, ECPAT and Fundacion Infantia have reported
constructive working relationships with DIF in a variety of
states (though with less success with the DIF in Tijuana).
Civil society actors also participate in the Committee for
Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children organized by DIF.

The NGO Fundacion Infantia and the International Labor
Organization (ILO) has worked with the Secretariat of Labor
(STPS), PGR, DIF and INM on public awareness campaigns to
prevent the commercial sexual exploitation of children, with
particularly good cooperation with state-level DIF offices.

IOM, ILO, UNICEF, the Bilateral Security Corridor Coalition
(BSCC), Coalition Against the Trafficking of Women and
Children (CAT-W), and Fundacion Infantia have conducted
training for federal and state governmental agencies to build
capacity in victim services and to develop greater awareness
of trafficking and the harms of sexual tourism.

14. (SBU) QUESTION F. Does the government monitor immigration
and emigration patterns for evidence of trafficking? Do law
enforcement agencies screen for potential trafficking victims
along borders?

POST RESPONSE: Mexican authorities are aware of the influx of
trafficked persons and other illegal migrants entering
through the southern border with the intention of transiting
Mexico en route to the U.S., but scarce resources prevent
them from training personnel to effectively screen for
potential trafficking victims. Mexican migration authorities
deported or detained for deportation approximately 180,000
aliens in 2006 Q) the vast majority of whom were from Central
America; approximately 30 thousand were women and two
thousand were minors. INM, however, believes that up to
500,000 aliens may cross the border every year. Since March
2006, the GOM referred six migrants who were trafficking
victims to IOM; and consulates and NGOs referred three other
victims who were migrants.

Grupo Beta, the INM unit that operates on the borders and
provides humanitarian aide to migrants in need, is alert to
trafficking victims and referred three trafficking victims to
IOM since March 2006. Grupo Beta is also an active
participant in the anti-trafficking committee in Tapachula,
Chiapas, established by IOM. During 2006, Grupo Beta reported
that its agents rescued 7,745 migrants; gave medical support
to 694; found 148 in the desert and rain forest; provided
social assistance to 103,732 and legal advice to 222; and
authorized protection to 92 migrants who were victims of
crime, some of whom were trafficking victims.

In September 2006, INM authorized the issuance of
humanitarian visas, which are valid for one year, renewable,
and granted to victims who agree to cooperate in the
prosecution of cases. INM reported that it has identified and
granted visas to 11 trafficking victims, four of whom
received visas since March 2006. Four of the victims were
from Argentina, four others from Honduras, two from China,
and one from El Salvador. One victim identified an INM
official in San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas, who provided
protection to traffickers; INM has since removed that
official and is conducting an investigation.

In operations to secure its borders, INM nonetheless misses
significant opportunities to identify victims. In 2006,
Mexican authorities designed a national program to raid bars,
conducting 872 operations and detaining 799 foreigners
working illegally, but no trafficking victims were
identified. On the northern border, Mexican authorities
rarely intervene when migrants cross into the U.S., providing
opportunity for trafficking.

In September 2006, INM cooperated with the NGO Sin Fronteras
and the GOM agencies PGR, PFP and CISEN to carry out an
operation on the manufacturing plant KBL, where they found 61

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Chinese workers whose migratory documents were in the control
of their employer and who were forced to work 14 hours per
day. The workers returned to China. (See paragraph 22 for
more information on the case.)

Within the last year, the GOM completed a USD $10 million
migrant processing facility in Tapachula, Chiapas, where many
Central American migrants pass. The facility provides
separate sections for women and children.

The GOM has signed accords with Guatemala, Belize, and El
Salvador that include provisions to enhance border security
and provide for the safe and orderly repatriation of
migrants, with special procedures for unaccompanied women and

INM is establishing SIOM, a law enforcement database, at 175
ports of entry in Mexico, which will potentially be a useful
instrument in fighting trafficking. In addition, President
Calderon just announced plans for a Safe Southern Border
Program, designed to strengthen Mexico's law enforcement
efforts in the south, improve treatment of illegal migrants,
and create a guest worker program for Central Americans.

15. (SBU) QUESTION G. Is there a mechanism for coordination
and communication between various agencies, internal,
international, and multilateral on trafficking-related
matters, such as a multi-agency working group or a task
force? Does the government have a trafficking in persons
working group or single point of contact? Does the
government have a public corruption task force?

POST RESPONSE: The government uses its Interinstitutional
Working Group on Trafficking to coordinate internal,
international, and multilateral efforts to combat
trafficking. The PFP is the lead agency, providing the
Technical Secretary for the Working Group. (See paragraph 10
for more information.)

While PGR and PFP have identified TIP coordinators in their
agencies, the INM has not designated a TIP coordinator,
though the point of contact remains the head of the nationQ,s
migrant detention centers. ICE is working with INM to
identify a coordinator and establish investigative units.

The Secretariat for Public Administration (SFP) and the PGR
share the responsibility to investigate public corruption.
Many government agencies also have internal anti-corruption

16. (SBU) QUESTION H. Does the government have a national
plan of action to address trafficking in persons? If so,
which agencies were involved in developing it? Were NGOs
consulted in the process? What steps has the government
taken to disseminate the action plan?

POST RESPONSE: The GOM does not have a national plan of
action to address trafficking at this time, though the
Interinstitutional Working Group on Trafficking has expressed
an interest in drafting a national plan. The PFP, however,
drafted a plan of action for its own operations, establishing
five investigative units and assigning them to five distinct
regions in the country. DIF also drafted and executed a
national plan for its program to eliminate commercial sexual
exploitation of children, identifying the nationQ,s most
critical cities. Civil society participated in DIFQ,s
development of a national plan and remains involved in the
program's committee. (See paragraph 13.)

(End of Part I.)

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