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2004-08-20 19:03:00
Embassy Brasilia
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						C O N F I D E N T I A L SECTION 01 OF 04 BRASILIA 002119 


E.O. 12958: DECL: 08/20/2014

REF: A. (A) 03 BRASILIA 2313

B. (B) 03 USDAO BRASILIA IIR 6 809 0235 03

Classified By: DepPolCouns Lawrence Cohen, reason 1.4 (d)


1. (C) Brazil's Amazon Surveillance System (SIVAM) and
Amazon Protection System (SIPAM) continue to show progress
and increased operational capabilities. SIVAM's data
collection infrastructure is almost complete; SIPAM continues
to create new map products for use by government and
non-governmental organizations. However, even with SIVAM
fully in place, many aircraft will still be able to avoid
detection by flying below radar patterns and look-down radar
on airborne platforms will not have continuous coverage. To
provide a seamless radar picture over its frontiers, Brazil
is actively seeking cooperative arrangements with neighboring
countries. Ultimately, both SIVAM and SIPAM will only be as
effective as the GOB's efforts to utilize the information
generated, whether to control Brazilian airspace or to
protect the environment. End Summary



2. (C) Emboffs accompanying CAPSTONE National Defense
University (NDU) team to Brazil's Amazon Surveillance System
(SIVAM) and Amazon Protection System (SIPAM) regional centers
in Manaus received in-depth briefing on the current status of
the two co-located facilities from Air Force Brigadier
General Alvaro Luiz Pinheiro, Vice President of the
Commission for Implementation of Air Space Control (CISCEA)
and the Coordinating Commission for the Amazon Surveillance
System (CCSIVAM). SIVAM Commandant Colonel Scariot and SIPAM
regional chief Engineer Captain Luciano also participated in
the August 10 visit.

3. (U) Brazil's Amazon Surveillance System (SIVAM) is an
integrated data collection project that utilizes a wide
variety of data acquisition tools throughout the Amazon
basin's 5.2 million square kilometers. Developed by Raytheon
and ATECH Technologies (Brazil), the multi-layered system
includes aerial surveillance, transportable ground based and
meteorological radars, airborne remote sensing and
surveillance platforms (Embraer R99-A and R99-B aircraft),
environmental and river sensors, weather ground stations,
lightning detectors, surveillance and meteorological
satellite observation, and even spot submissions from
individual informants. Using the extensive raw data
collected by SIVAM, the Amazon Protection System (SIPAM)
integrates, evaluates, and disseminates the information into
packages for distribution to end-user Brazilian agencies and
non-governmental organizations. To complete the SIPAM
information network, end-user terminals are being placed in
each of the Amazon region's 257 municipalities with over
10,000 inhabitants.

4. (SBU) Almost all of SIVAM's multi-layered data collection
mechanisms are up and running; only a few of the facility's
information collection and observation components are still
not fully functional. In coordination with SIPAM which
provides integrated data analysis, a detailed geographic
information system (GIS) portrait of the Amazon basin is
emerging rapidly. Increasingly, the data and data-created
products are being shared in real time with appropriate
military and civilian endusers. The air traffic control
component of the Amazon Region Air Traffic Control and
Integrated Air Defense System (CINDACTA IV) is showing
progress. The next stage in SIVAM/SIPAM development,
resulting in greater control of Brazilian airspace and
protection and sustainable development of the Amazon, will
rely on improved coordination among government and
non-government entities.

Air Defense and Control by 2005


5. (SBU) Utilizing SIVAM data, the Air Traffic Control and
Integrated Air Defense System for the Amazon (CINDACTA IV), a
component of Brazil's national Air Defense and Air Traffic
Control System (SISDACTA), should be fully operational by
early 2005. (Note: Brazil's other regional ATC and air
defense systems, CINDACTA I, II, and III are already
operational. End Note) Two transportable 3D radars are not
yet operational; other systems, including VHF radio, should
be completed within a few months. To identify unauthorized
aircraft and airspace incursions from neighboring countries,
air-air, air-ground, and spot (look-down) SAR airborne
sensors onboard the system's three R99-B aircraft provide
high resolution imaging and surface information that in
combination with surface radar systems, and when the R99-B
aircraft are aloft, provides complete vertical airspace
coverage. Low-flying intruding aircraft, however, can avoid
radar detection over much of the Amazon when the surveillance
planes are grounded or unavailable in the particular region.
(Note: Given the costs associated with keeping the three
R99-Bs aloft, the planes at present will be utilized only
when and where collaborating information suggests airspace
incursions are occurring or will occur at a given date and
time. End note) Pinheiro indicated that during CINDACTA
IV's short lifespan to date, it has monitored a 30 percent
increase in regional air traffic -- a result of increased air
traffic communications between pilots and ATC stations rather
than an increase in flights. "When pilots know they are being
monitored, they are more prone to acknowledge their presence
and file a flight plan," he observed.

Hand Across the Borders


6. (C) Pinheiro believed full air defense and traffic
control (ATC) throughout the Amazon will be achieved by June
2005; key to this achievement, he noted, will be ATC
coordination and integration with Brazil's neighbors. In
previous discussions with mission personnel, the GOB had
indicated its desire to enter into SIVAM cost-sharing
arrangements over ATC data. Pinheiro was certain that Brazil
no longer sought cost reimbursement from other governments.
Instead, Brazil's current objective is the creation of a
seamless radar overlap with all its neighbors extending 50
miles on each side of Brazil's borders. Each regional
CINDACTA, Pinheiro explained, has been given the go ahead by
Brasilia to develop local data sharing mechanisms with
neighboring countries. (Note: Mission has not yet been able
to confirm with other Ministry of Defense sources whether
regional CINDACTAs are, in fact, tasked to develop
transborder data sharing mechanisms. End note) With Peru, for
example, since both Ministries of Defense had agreed to terms
of reference for real time data sharing, Pinheiro affirmed
that CINDACTA IV and its Peruvian counterpart were in the
process of establishing close border radar overlap
capability. Colombia, he said, wanted to do the same,
although the GOC's desire to obtain data for Brazilian
airspace beyond the 50 mile border zone, he noted, was a
"non-starter." Brazil already works closely with Colombia on
information sharing, and both Venezuela and French Guiana
have expressed interest in developing joint ATC operations.
While Bolivia does not have its own operating sensors,
Pinheiro added, Brazil is considering provision of surplus
radar units as it upgrades its own radars.

7. (C) Pinheiro and Scariot opined that when fully
operational, the coordinated CINDACTA IV ATC system, in
conjunction with implementation of Brazil's Lei de Abate
("Shootdown" Law) in October, would be sufficient in
dissuading airborne narcotrafficking in the Amazon "without
recourse to actually shooting any aircraft from the sky."
Pinheiro added that the SIVAM observation platform will also
serve to deny the use of illicit airfields which can now be
more easily located and targeted for action.

SIVAM Products


8. (U) As a data collection system SIVAM generates a range
of products for use by the Amazon Protection System (SIPAM)
or other end-users. Among the raw products promoted by the
SIVAM Coordinating Commission (CCSIVAM) are:

- Meteorological: Satellite images, real-time
meteorological situation maps, historical and current climate
study statistics, weather forecasts for airports, and
accumulated precipitation and lightning reports;

- Electromagnetic Surveillance: Emission contact and map
data and communications networks;

- Environmental: Groundcover maps and general reports,
land use and environmental impact maps, soil damage maps,
fauna and habitat classification maps, deforestation maps and
fire incidence reports, mercury contamination reports, local
and regional CO2 and O3 concentrations, statistical reports
on greenhouse gas data, pollution threats to human
populations, water quality and hydrographic maps, flood
prevention and flood forecasting reports, urbanization impact
maps and statistical reports, and epidemiological studies;

- Territorial Surveillance: Real-time airborne and surface
vehicle movement and trajectories, identified target maps,
border violation maps, irregular cultivation maps,
biodiversity extraction and illicit mining maps, geologic
maps, and locations of detected (irregular and perhaps
illicit) rest-stops.

SIPAM and its Activities


9. (C) Past visits by mission personnel to the co-located
SIVAM/SIPAM complex in Manaus suggested a clear dichotomy
between the two entities. While the two entities remain
separate with SIVAM providing the raw data to SIPAM, the
separation may be less distinct than before. Moreover,
bureaucratic concerns about allowing uniformed visitors into
SIPAM may be lessening. During the CAPSTONE/NDU visit, SIPAM
regional chief Captain Luciano welcomed the opportunity to
display his center's sophisticated GIS capabilities. For
example, he demonstrated how SIPAM's environmental analysis
unit incorporates SIVAM data into usable tools (e.g. maps of
deforestation trends, forest fire monitoring, land use maps)
for GOB entities such as the Ministry of Environment. The
meteorological cell which has grown dramatically in just a
few months, would soon be going to a 24/7 operation schedule,
Luciano said. In addition to direct links with GOB agencies,
workspace within SIPAM is being provided to NGOs engaged in
Amazon field work. Luciano acknowledged that with SIPAM's
rapid development of new data tools, data storage is becoming
an increasing challenge.

10. (U) Luciano expressed pride in the progress the Amazon
Protection System has made in recent months and highlighted
SIPAM's key focus areas:

- Environmental protection;
- Land use supervision and control;
- Border surveillance and control;
- Prevention and control of epidemics;
- Civil defense activities;
- Identification of punishable illegal activities;
- Protection of indigenous populations and their land;
- Air traffic control and surveillance;
- Support for sustainable development;
- Weather forecasting; and
- Climate studies.

11. (SBU) Comment: While SIVAM and SIPAM continue to show
noteworthy progress, the ultimate success of these programs
will be measured if/when/to what extent Brazilian agencies
and NGOs utilize the new information tools provided.
Ultimately, more rigorous environmental protection,
sustainable development of the Amazon, and greater
surveillance of Brazilian airspace leading to reduced
narcotrafficking will be SIVAM/SIPAM's most important