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03ABUDHABI1414 2003-03-24 13:31:00 UNCLASSIFIED//FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Embassy Abu Dhabi
Cable title:  

UAE: 2003 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT

Tags:   KCRM PHUM KWMN SMIG KFRD ASEC PREF ELAB 
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Diana T Fritz  05/24/2007 04:46:27 PM  From  DB/Inbox:  Search Results

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Text:                                                                      
                                                                           
      
UNCLASSIFIED

SIPDIS
TELEGRAM                                           March 24, 2003


To:       No Action Addressee                                    

Action:   Unknown                                                

From:     AMEMBASSY ABU DHABI (ABU DHABI 1414 - PRIORITY)        

TAGS:     PHUM, ASEC, PREF, ELAB, KCRM, KFRD                     

Captions: None                                                   

Subject:  UAE: 2003 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT                

Ref:      None                                                   
_________________________________________________________________
UNCLAS        ABU DHABI 01414

SIPDIS
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    ACTION: POL 
    INFO:   ECON AMB RSO DCM P/M 

DISSEMINATION: POL
CHARGE: PROG

APPROVED: DCM: RAALBRIGHT
DRAFTED: POL: MMENARD
CLEARED: CGD; POL; ECON

VZCZCADI543
PP RUEHC RUEAWJA RUEHC RUEATRS RUEHZM RUEHMO
RUEHTA RUEHKB RUEHKA RUEHIL RUEHBJ RUEHRB RUEHEK RUEHYE
RUEHNT RUEHDI
DE RUEHAD #1414/01 0831331
ZNR UUUUU ZZH
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FM AMEMBASSY ABU DHABI
TO RUEHC/SECSTATE WASHDC PRIORITY 9029
INFO RUEAWJA/DEPT OF JUSTICE WASHDC
RUEHC/DEPT OF LABOR WASHDC
RUEATRS/DEPT OF TREASURY WASHINGTON DC
RUEHZM/GCC COLLECTIVE
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					  UNCLAS SECTION 01 OF 26 ABU DHABI 001414 

SIPDIS

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DEPT FOR G, G/TIP, INL, DRL, PRM, IWI, NEA, NEA/RA
AND NEA/ARP

E.O. 12958: N/A
TAGS: KCRM PHUM KWMN SMIG KFRD ASEC PREF ELAB
PREL, TC
SUBJECT: UAE: 2003 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT

REF: STATE 22225

THIS MESSAGE IS SENSITIVE BUT UNCLASSIFIED, PLEASE
PROTECT ACCORDINGLY.



1. Embassy point of contact on trafficking in persons
is Poloff Marlene M. Menard, office: + 971 (0)2
4436691 ext. 2502, fax: + 971 (0)2 4434771; unclass
email: menardmm2@state.gov.



2. OMB Reporting Requirements: One FS-04 officer
spent about 30 hours writing the report. One FS-04
officer spent 3 hours reviewing and clearing the
report. Two FS-02 officers spent a total of four
hours reviewing and clearing the report. One FS-01
officer spent two hours reviewing and clearing the
report.



3. Following is Post's submission of the 2003
Trafficking in Persons Report for the United Arab
Emirates covering the reporting period of April 2003
- April 2003.



4. Overview of a country's activities to eliminate
trafficking in persons:

-- A. Is the country a country of origin, transit or
destination for international trafficked men, women,
or children? Does the trafficking occur within the
country's borders? Does it occur in territory outside
of the government's control (e.g., in a civil war
situation)? Are any estimates or reliable numbers
available as to the extent or magnitude of the
problem? Please include any numbers of victims. What
is (are) the source(s) of available information on
trafficking in persons? How reliable are the numbers
and these sources? Are certain groups of persons more
at risk of being trafficked (e.g., women and children,
boys versus girls, certain ethnic
groups, refugees, etc.)?

The UAE is a destination country for internationally
trafficked women and boys. Trafficking does not
occur within the UAE's borders. There is no UAE
territory outside of the government's control.

There are no verified numbers available as to the
extent of the problem. Reports by NGOs and
intergovernmental organizations contain estimates on
the parameters of the problem in the UAE based on
research conducted in source countries, which rely
heavily on surveys and interviews of women and
anecdotal evidence. These reports also tend to
reflect estimates of the number of victims trafficked
to the UAE over the years. While such estimates and
information can be useful in defining the problem's
general historical parameters, they are less useful
in determining the number of persons trafficked to
the UAE during the current reporting period.

Groups of persons that tend to be more at risk of
being trafficked to the UAE include: boys for use as
camel jockeys and women for purposes of prostitution.

Foreign diplomats report that many child camel
jockeys in the UAE came here with their parents
because of dire economic conditions back home or were
sold by their families to unscrupulous middlemen from
the source country who arrange for their travel to
the UAE. There are no statistics or estimates as to
how many boys were actually kidnapped and trafficked
here and how many came here with or with the full
knowledge and consent of their families.

Many women engaged in prostitution in the UAE
reportedly voluntarily and knowingly travel to and
from the UAE for temporary stays, during which they
engage in prostitution and possibly other activities
connected with organized crime. There are few
statistics or estimates as to how many of the women
engaging in prostitution in the UAE were actually
trafficked here and how many came here and stayed of
their own volition.

-- B. Where are the persons trafficked from? Where
are the persons trafficked to?

NGOs report that boys for use as camel jockeys are
trafficked to the UAE primarily from South Asia,
namely, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
NGOs and intergovernmental organizations report that
women who have traveled to the UAE for purposes of
prostitution are brought here mostly from countries in
Central Asia and Eastern Europe, namely, Russia, the
Kyrgyz Republic, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Armenia,
Uzbekistan, as well as from Iran and Morocco. There
are also reports that women from China have traveled
to the UAE for purposes of prostitution. As noted in
paragraph A above, there are no verified statistics as
to how many women traveling to the UAE for purposes of
prostitution are actually trafficking victims.

-- C. Have there been any changes in the direction or
extent of trafficking?

Since research on the issue of trafficking in persons
to the UAE is limited, it is difficult to determine
whether there have been any changes in the direction
or extent of trafficking to the UAE. Because there is
no baseline of information on trafficking in persons
to the UAE, the reports published over the past
several years in Central Asian and Eastern European
source countries help shed light on the scope of the
problem, but are of little benefit in determining
whether there have been any changes in the direction
or extent of trafficking to the UAE.

UAEG officials expect that the child camel jockey ban
effective 1 September 2002 will impact the extent of
trafficking in boys to the UAE because it will
eliminate the market for child camel jockeys and the
corresponding incentive to traffic boys to the UAE for
this purpose. UAEG officials acknowledge that they
have not yet achieved 100 percent compliance with the
ban, but stress that they are earnestly working
towards attaining this goal through inspections at
races.

-- D. Are any efforts or surveys planned or underway
to document the extent and nature of trafficking in
the country? Is any additional information available
from such reports or surveys that was not available
last year?

The UAEG is currently conducting a general amnesty
program in an attempt to address illegal migration
into the country. The amnesty program, from January
through April 2003, allows persons who have
overstayed their visas or who entered the country
without visas to leave the country without penalty of
prosecution for immigration violations.

So that the UAEG can better monitor immigration
patterns in the future, the UAEG is updating its
immigration databases with information received from
a questionnaire to be completed by all amnesty-
seekers. The questionnaire includes questions on how
the amnesty applicants arrived in the country, who
assisted them in coming and staying here, what they
have been doing and whether they have been working
while here, etc. Immigration officials indicated
that questionnaires completed by amnesty-seekers
containing information suggesting criminal activity,
including trafficking in persons, are referred to law
enforcement authorities for investigation.

The UAEG has also instituted the use of retinal scans
to add biometrics identification information to its
databases. Biometrics information will help UAEG
authorities better monitor migration and combat
document fraud by visitors and illegal immigrants,
for example, the use of false names and birthdays in
passports and other identification papers.

Labor Ministry officials indicated that statistical
information received from the general amnesty program
would help them identify labor law violation
practices and trends so that they can better manage
the labor market and protect worker rights.

The amnesty program is not designed specifically to
determine the extent or the magnitude of trafficking
in persons to the UAE. However, UAEG officials state
that statistical analyses based on amnesty program
information will provide them with a foundation from
which they can monitor trafficking in persons and
estimate the magnitude of the problem.

-- E. If the country is a destination point for
trafficked victims: What kind of conditions are the
victims trafficked into? Are they forced to work in
sweatshops, agriculture, restaurants, construction
sites, prostitution, nude dancing, domestic servitude,
begging, or other forms of labor, exploitation, or
services? What methods are used to ensure their
compliance? Are the victims subject to violence,
threats, withholding of their documents, debt bondage,
etc.?

NGO and IOM reports and anecdotal evidence indicate
that conditions for trafficking victims are varied.

In the past, credible sources reported that almost
all camel jockeys were boys between the ages of 4 and
10, some of whom were trafficked to the country by
small, organized gangs. The traffickers obtained the
youths, usually from poor families in Pakistan and
Bangladesh, by kidnapping, or in some instances by
buying them from their parents outright or taking
them under false pretenses, and then smuggling them
into the country. Some children reported being
beaten while working as jockeys, and others were
injured seriously during races. Some of the boys
were underfed to make them as light as possible. The
boys often did not receive compensation for their
services since many times the trafficker posed as the
child's parent and received the child's salary from
the camel farm owner.

Reports and anecdotal evidence indicate that women
trafficked to the UAE were often brought to the
country under the false pretense of legitimate
employment, but then were forced into prostitution.
It is unclear whether the women actually signed
contracts of employment or traveled to the UAE based
on employment promises only. When the women arrived
in the country, the traffickers did not provide the
promised employment, took their passports, and forced
them to engage in prostitution to repay their travel
and other expenses. Some of these women were confined
to residences. Because the traffickers only paid the
women small amounts of money, the women found it
difficult to repay these debts. The traffickers also
warned the women that they would be arrested if they
sought help from the police or others for immigration
violations or other criminal offenses. Some women
were threatened with physical abuse.
-- F. If the country is a country of origin: Which
populations are targeted by the traffickers? Who are
the traffickers? What methods are used to approach
victims? (Are they offered lucrative jobs, sold by
their families, approached by friends of friends,
etc.?) What methods are used to move the victims
(e.g., are false documents being used)?
The UAE is not a country of origin for trafficking.

-- G. Is there political will at the highest levels
of government to combat trafficking in persons? Is
the government making a good faith effort to seriously
address trafficking? Is there a willingness to take
action against government officials linked to TIP? In
broad terms, what resources is the host government
devoting to combating trafficking in persons (in terms
of prevention, protection, prosecution)?

Senior government leadership exhibited strong
political will to combat trafficking in persons, and
the UAEG made a concerted good faith effort to
seriously address trafficking in persons.

In an effort to eradicate the trafficking of boys to
the UAE for use as camel jockeys, the UAEG announced
in July 2002 that it would criminalize the decades-
long practice of employing child camel jockeys
effective 1 September 2002. This ban was announced
despite strong resistance from some tradition-bound
camel farm owners. The Government also tightened
controls at points of entry into the country for boys
under the age of 15 years and mandated the
repatriation of child camel jockeys in the UAE to
their home countries for reunification with their
families.

In October 2002, Minister of State for Foreign
Affairs Shaykh Hamdan Bin Zayed Al Nahyan sent
letters to various source countries' foreign
ministers, asking for their cooperation and
coordination in addressing this transnational crime
of humanitarian concern.

In November 2002, UAEG officials engaged in
discussions on trafficking in persons with USG
officials at the first U.S.-UAE Strategic Dialogue
held in Washington, D.C. In February 2003, Minister
of State for Foreign Affairs Shaykh Hamdan Bin Zayed
Al Nahyan wrote to U.S. Secretary of State Colin
Powell, as a follow-up, and reiterated the UAEG's
commitment to fighting trafficking in persons. In
that letter, the Minister of State for Foreign
Affairs also advised the Secretary of the creation of
a new UAE trafficking in persons task force.

UAEG political will was further apparent during the
U.S. State Department official visit of Sally
Neumann, G/TIP, and Barbara Keary, NEA/RA, to the UAE
in January 2003. During the visit, the USG officials
met with high-ranking officials from the Ministries
of Foreign Affairs, Interior, Justice, Health and
Labor and the Dubai Police Department, including the
Dubai Police Human Rights Department Director. The
Emirati officials all confirmed the UAEG's commitment
to monitor and combat trafficking in persons.

The UAEG senior leadership has repeatedly requested
information on training opportunities that
specifically address combating trafficking in
persons, to help law enforcement officials,
prosecutors and judges better identify, investigate
and prosecute trafficking in persons cases. After
receiving information on USG training opportunities
in February 2003, Post presented the information to
the Office of the Minister of State for Foreign
Affairs, which forwarded the information to the
Ministry of Interior and Ministry of Justice for
consideration.

There are no reports that UAEG officials are linked
to trafficking in persons. In the past, the UAEG has
investigated and prosecuted government officials
suspected of committing criminal offenses, e.g.,
embezzlement and fraud. This willingness to take
action against government officials suspected of
illegal activity indicates that the UAEG would take
action against government officials linked to
trafficking in persons.

-- H. Do governmental authorities or individual
members of government forces facilitate trafficking,
condone trafficking, or are otherwise complicit in
such activities? If so, at what levels? Do
government authorities (such as customs, border
guards, immigration officials, local police, or
others) receive bribes from traffickers or otherwise
assist in their operations? What punitive measures,
if any, have been taken against those individuals
complicit or involved in trafficking? Please provide
numbers, when available, of government officials
involved, accused, convicted and/or prosecuted.

Government policy does not facilitate or condone
trafficking. There are no reports that governmental
authorities or individual members of government forces
facilitate trafficking, condone trafficking, or are
otherwise complicit in such activities. There are
also no reports that government authorities receive
bribes from traffickers or otherwise assist in their
operations.

In the past, the UAEG has investigated and prosecuted
government officials suspected of committing criminal
offenses, e.g., embezzlement and fraud. Because of
this willingness to take action against government
officials suspected of illegal activity, it is
expected that the UAEG would take action against
government authorities that facilitate trafficking,
condone trafficking, or are otherwise complicit in
such activities, or that receive bribes from
traffickers or otherwise assist in their operations.

-- I. What are the limitations on the government's
ability to address this problem in practice? For
example, is funding for police or other institutions
inadequate? Is overall corruption a problem? Does
the government lack the resources to aid victims?

There are no limitations on the UAEG's ability to
address trafficking in persons. The Government has
taken many concrete steps to fight trafficking in
persons to the UAE, and it is expected that the UAEG
will successfully achieve its goal to fully monitor
and combat trafficking in persons in a reasonable
amount of time. However, certain factors limit the
UAEG's ability to take actions within a short period
of time.

The UAE gained its independence in 1971. Although a
young country, it has transcended rapidly from an
undeveloped country to a dynamic regional economic
power with an advanced infrastructure and a diverse
urbanized population with residents from about 201
different countries. The UAE is also an open country
with a vibrant tourism industry, and is a busy transit
hub for international travel and trade. As a result
of the country's rapid modernization and growth, the
federal Government is increasingly tasked with
responding to complex issues of international concern,
many of which involve foreign organized criminal
groups, including terrorism, money laundering, as well
as trafficking in persons, drugs, arms, and weapons of
mass destruction.

A loose federation comprised of seven individual
emirates, the UAEG is governed by consensus of the
seven emirates' rulers. The federal Government
asserts primacy in matters of foreign and defense
policy, some aspects of internal security, and
increasingly in matters of law and the supply of some
government services. However, the loose federal
structure and requirement for consensus impacts quick
action on some matters.

The bureaucratic process to pass legislation, accede
to international treaties or create national
strategies can sometimes be lengthy. The Justice
Ministry oversees the passage of new legislation and
accession to bilateral or multilateral treaties. An
inter-ministerial Technical Committee works to draft
agreed language, which then goes for approval to a
second inter-ministerial Political Committee that
includes representatives from each Emirate. The
Political Committee is charged with achieving
consensus on the draft language from the seven
emirates. Once consensus is achieved, the draft
language is presented to the Federal National Council
(FNC) for debate and consideration. Once the FNC
concludes its consideration, it makes a recommendation
on the draft language to the federal Cabinet, which
then reviews and considers the draft language for
passage into law.

Despite the normally lengthy process involved with
passing new legislation, the Minister of State for
Foreign Affairs led the effort to criminalize the use
of child camel jockeys in record time. The
announcement of the child camel jockey ban in July
2002 was made only months after he decided to lead the
effort to criminalize the use of child camel jockeys.
Our interlocutors report that he pushed the ban
through the bureaucracy because of his desire to
terminate this practice before the beginning of the
next camel racing season in October 2002.

Consistent enforcement of laws throughout the country
is sometimes affected by the relative independence of
security and police forces in each emirate. While all
emirate internal security organs theoretically are
branches of one federal organization, in practice they
operate with considerable independence. And, each
emirate maintains its own independent police force.

Some cultural characteristics also hamper the
Government's ability to immediately address some
trafficking in persons issues. For example, camel
racing is a traditional sport. In the past, camel
owners or their sons raced camels. Over the years,
boys have been increasingly used as camel jockeys,
many of whom are offered for employment to camel
owners by their parents. The UAEG leadership states
that they are working to change attitudes that accept
the use of boys as camel jockeys. Because this change
will take time, the UAEG leadership acknowledges that
they have not yet been able to achieve total
compliance with the ban, but are working earnestly to
meet this goal through inspections at races.
The country has the resources to adequately fund its
police and other institutions and to aid victims.
However, federal ministry and local department budgets
are determined on an annual basis. Consequently,
although the UAE is a wealthy country, the institution
of new programs may be required to wait until the next
budget grant when monies can be allocated for those
new programs.

There have been a few cases of officials prosecuted
for public corruption. However, public corruption in
the UAEG is not a major problem and should not detract
from the UAEG's ability to tackle trafficking in
persons.



4. Prevention:

-- A. Does the government acknowledge that
trafficking is a problem in that country? If no, why
not?

The UAEG acknowledges that trafficking in persons is a
problem. The senior leadership has noted a number of
times that this transnational crime must be addressed
for humanitarian as well as national security reasons.
Emirati officials have described trafficking in
persons as a disease that must be eradicated before
more people are victimized. UAEG officials also
recognize that a failure to attack organized crime in
this area opens the country to organized crime in
other areas, such as drugs or weapons. Officials in
Dubai were shocked, for instance, by the recent
gangland-style murder of a prominent Dubai-based
Indian businessman with connections to the underworld.

In October 2002, Minister of State for Foreign
Affairs Shaykh Hamdan Bin Zayed Al Nahyan sent
letters to various source countries' foreign
ministers, asking for their cooperation and
coordination in addressing trafficking in persons.

In November 2002, UAEG officials engaged in
discussions on trafficking in persons with USG
officials at the first U.S.-UAE Strategic Dialogue
held in Washington, D.C. In February 2003, Minister
of State for Foreign Affairs Shaykh Hamdan Bin Zayed
Al Nahyan wrote to U.S. Secretary of State Colin
Powell, as a follow-up, and reiterated the UAEG's
commitment to fighting trafficking in persons. In
that letter, the Minister of State for Foreign
Affairs also advised the Secretary of the creation of
a new trafficking in persons task force.

The UAEG's acknowledgment of trafficking to the UAE
was apparent during the U.S. State Department official
visit of Sally Neumann, G/TIP, and Barbara Keary,
NEA/RA, to the UAE in January 2003. The USG officials
met with high-ranking officials from the Ministries of
Foreign Affairs, Interior, Justice, Health and Labor.
They also met with officers from the Dubai Police
Department, including the Dubai Police Human Rights
Department Director. The Emirati officials all
acknowledged that trafficking in persons to the UAE is
a problem and sought engagement on the issue. The
UAEG officials briefed the USG officials on Government
actions that impact and combat trafficking in persons
and requested assistance in other areas.
-- B. Which government agencies are involved in anti-
trafficking efforts?

Both federal ministries and local emirate departments
are involved in anti-trafficking efforts. Some
efforts are specifically designed to combat
trafficking in persons. Other efforts are not
specifically designed to combat trafficking in persons
but have that effect because such efforts help in the
prevention of trafficking, prosecution of trafficking,
and protection of trafficking victims.

On the federal level, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of
Health, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, and
Ministry of Information are involved actively in anti-
trafficking efforts. On the local level, the police
departments, immigration departments, and social
services departments are also involved.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is actively involved
in a number of anti-trafficking efforts. In July
2002, the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs led
the campaign to eradicate the trafficking of boys for
use as camel jockeys by announcing a ban on child
camel jockeys with criminal penalties for violators,
mandating the repatriation of boys currently in the
country working as child camel jockeys to their home
countries for reunification with their families, and
ordering increased security measures by immigration
officials at ports of entry.

The child camel jockey ban prohibits the use of camel
jockeys less than 15 years of age and who weigh less
than 45 kilograms (99 pounds). The Government
established the following penalties for violators of
the child camel jockey ban: first offense, fine of
approximately $5,500 (20,000 dirhams); second offense,
ban from participation in camel races for one year;
third and subsequent offenses, imprisonment.

The UAEG implemented the age and weight requirements
by requiring all camel jockeys to apply for and
receive a government-issued identification (ID) card.
To verify the ID card applicant's age and guard
against document fraud, e.g., a passport that
indicates the child is 15 years when he is actually
only 12 years, the UAEG issues ID cards only after a
positive physical examination by a medical committee
through the use of x-rays and other tests that confirm
that the child is at least 15 years of age. In
January 2003, the UAEG instituted an additional
requirement of DNA tests to further guard against
document fraud and apprehend traffickers by ensuring
that the person presenting the boy for ID application
is in fact the biological parent of the child. UAEG
officials indicate that if the person presenting the
boy for ID application is not the biological parent of
the child, then the application is referred to law
enforcement authorities for investigation for
trafficking.

The Government is enforcing the child camel jockey ban
through inspections at races. Although UAEG officials
state that they have not yet achieved 100 percent
compliance with the child camel jockey ban, the
Government officials indicate that they are working
earnestly to achieve this goal.

In October 2002, the Minister of State for Foreign
Affairs contacted the Ministers of Foreign Affairs for
various source countries, initiating bilateral
cooperation and coordination in monitoring and
combating trafficking in persons and in repatriation
of victims. UAE Embassies in source countries also
contacted the governments of the source countries in
this regard.
In February 2003, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
announced the creation of a new trafficking in
persons task force. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs
is currently considering the best method to
institutionalize follow-up on monitoring and
combating trafficking in persons. An option under
consideration includes an office to coordinate and
follow-up on ministries' actions. The UAEG is also
currently considering membership in the International
Organization for Migration (IOM).

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs coordinated the
attendance of two Emirati officials, one representing
the Ministry of Justice and one representing the Dubai
Police Department, at the February 2003 "Pathbreaking
Strategies in the Global Fight Against Sex
Trafficking" Conference in Washington D.C. The MFA is
also currently shepherding information on USG training
opportunities on trafficking in persons to the
Ministry of Interior and Ministry of Justice.

The Ministry of Justice took the lead in the UAEG's
accession in December 2002 to the UN Convention
Against Transnational Organized Crime. The Ministry
of Justice is also currently taking the lead in the
UAEG's consideration and reported upcoming accession
to that Convention's Supplemental Protocol to Prevent,
Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially
Women and Children, and Supplemental Protocol Against
the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.

The Ministry of Justice's Institute for Judicial
Training and Studies includes mandatory courses for
prosecutors and judges on subjects that generally
impact trafficking in persons, including human rights,
sex offenses, immigration violations and labor
violations. Justice Ministry officials requested and
are currently considering information on training
opportunities that specifically address trafficking in
persons, namely the recently-released USDOJ OPDAT
trafficking in persons training program that we
provided to the Ministry of Justice as soon as it was
available. The Ministry of Justice purview includes
prosecutors as well as judges. A representative from
the Ministry of Justice, the Chief Prosecutor in Al
Ain, Abu Dhabi Emirate, attended the February 2003
"Pathbreaking Strategies in the Global Fight Against
Sex Trafficking" Conference in Washington D.C.

Ministry of Justice officials report that they are
reviewing U.S. legislation and the Trafficking
Protocol to determine whether UAE existing legislation
covers all aspects of trafficking in persons. If not,
then Ministry of Justice officials indicate that a
determination will be made as to whether supplemental
legislation will suffice or whether new comprehensive
legislation on trafficking in persons is warranted.

Regarding the child camel jockey ban, the Ministry of
Health organized the medical committees that conduct
the medical tests to estimate the age of the camel
jockey identification applicants. The Ministry of
Health also conducts the applicant/parent DNA testing.

Ministry of Health officials acknowledge the health
problems affecting trafficking victims, especially
HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases, and the
possible resulting public health issues. The Health
Ministry maintains social workers/counselors in all
public hospitals to which medical personnel refer
patients when sexual or other abuse is suspected. The
social workers/counselors are also available for
consultation by patients in the absence of such
suspicion. The local police departments also maintain
officers in public hospitals that are immediately
accessible in the event a patient is suspected to be a
victim of a criminal offense.

The Ministry of Health issues annual health cards to
workers, which they initially receive after passing a
physical examination upon arrival to the UAE. The 300
dirhams (about $82) health cards are provided by
employers to employees for free medical treatment and
medication to employees and their dependents at public
hospitals. Annual physical exams for employees are
required to renew the health cards. Domestic servants
are subject to these annual exams even though they are
not covered by the Labor Code. During this exam,
medical personnel with specialized abuse-detection
training make inquiries and look for signs of sexual
or physical abuse. The Ministry of Health also makes
available at public hospitals brochures about domestic
violence and sexual and physical abuse with
information on who to contact for help or assistance.

Ministry of Health officials also report that the
Ministry actively conducts health education outreach
to community associations (many of the more than 201
nationalities resident in the UAE have community
associations) and foreign embassies. In March 2003,
the Ministry of Health announced that it would soon
begin widespread distribution of a booklet on
communicable diseases, covering their causes,
treatment and how to report them to authorities.

The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs manages the
work force and labor market and enforces compliance
with the labor law through inspections. The Ministry
of Labor and Social Affairs also reviews employment
contracts for workers in the industrial and service
sectors to ensure compliance with the labor laws.

In 2002, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs
began distributing an information booklet to foreign
workers outlining their rights under the labor law and
how to pursue labor disputes, whether individual or
collective. The booklet includes information on work
permits, employment contracts and labor cards, private
recruitment agencies, work hours and leave,
compensation for work injuries and occupational
diseases, labor disputes, employment contract
termination, end of service benefits, transfer of
sponsorship and repatriation. The booklet also
contains contact information for the Ministry of Labor
and addresses and telephone numbers for all foreign
missions in the UAE.

Ministry of Labor officials stated that they
distributed the information booklets to embassies and
consulates in the UAE, focusing on those with large
numbers of citizens working here, and requested the
foreign diplomats to assist in the distribution of the
information booklets to their citizens already present
and working in the UAE. Ministry of Labor officials
also requested the foreign missions to assist in
providing the information booklets to prospective
employees in their countries prior to their departure
for the UAE.

Employees may file individual employment dispute or
collective work dispute complaints with the Ministry
of Labor. Press reports continually reflect the
active involvement of the Labor Ministry in resolving
such disputes. In individual complaints, the employee
may file a complaint with special labor courts if the
Labor Ministry is unable to mediate a resolution by
agreement of the parties. The Labor Ministry also
mediates collective work disputes. However, if the
Labor Ministry is unable to successfully mediate a
collective work dispute, the dispute is referred to a
Labor Ministry Conciliation Committee for arbitration.
Either party may appeal the Conciliation Committee's
decision to a Labor Ministry Supreme Committee of
Conciliation, whose decision is final.

In May 2001, the Government introduced a new law
requiring some employers to deposit monetary
guarantees with third-party banks. The purpose of the
guarantee was to decrease the growing number of cases
in which employees worked, sometimes for months,
without wages. The amount of the guarantee increased
according to the number of workers employed by the
depositor. In May 2002, the Labor Ministry announced
that the institution of bank guarantees to protect
rights of workers had been mostly successful as the
number of labor disputes, especially in companies that
were required to deposit large bank guarantees, had
decreased. After reports that some employers were
making their employees pay the amount of the bank
guarantee, in September 2002 the Labor Ministry
publicly warned employers that such actions were labor
law violations because employers are responsible for
providing the bank guarantees and that it would take
strict action against companies that deducted the
value of the bank guarantee from their workers'
salaries.

In May 2002, the Labor Ministry announced it would not
tolerate the violation of the rights of workers,
especially those of low-income laborers, and increased
and intensified inspections. In August 2002, the
Labor Ministry announced that 215 companies had been
blacklisted (suspended from submitting applications
for new work permits or sponsorship transfers) and
fined for labor law violations. In September 2002,
the Labor Ministry blacklisted a company for failure
to comply with an agreement with the Ministry to pay
outstanding backpay of five months to 300 workers.

In response to inspections revealing a high incidence
of labor law violations by private companies, in June
2002 the Labor Ministry announced the creation of a
special task force to inspect all industrial
establishments in the private sector. In November
2002, 54 additional labor inspectors began work,
increasing the number of labor inspectors to about


120. Labor inspectors review a number of items
during inspection, including payment of wages, hours
worked, safety and health requirements. The
inspections include a review of business records as
well as employee interviews. In February 2003, the
Labor Ministry announced that it had prepared
guidelines for labor inspectors as part of a
comprehensive plan to upgrade inspections.

In an effort to reduce the practice of "sham"
companies, which apply for and receive work permits
for employees but do not actually provide them with
employment, a special committee appointed by the
federal Cabinet Committee reviewed data provided by
the Ministry of Labor and released a report in
November 2002 with recommendations on how to
eliminate this practice, including stricter scrutiny
of commercial license and work permit applications.

In March 2003, Labor Ministry officials announced a
new requirement for private companies to reduce the
incidence of unpaid wages and "sham" companies. Upon
request from the Labor Ministry, private companies
must furnish periodic reports, certified by
professional auditors, showing regular payment of
workers' salaries and/or the location of workers
sponsored by the company, whether working for the
sponsor company or other companies. Labor Ministry
officials stated that these requirements are
currently being applied to construction and
maintenance companies. Other types of companies,
however, may be required to submit these reports in
the future if they fail to pay workers' salaries
regularly as required by employment contracts and the
labor law. Companies that do not comply with this
new reporting requirement will be blacklisted --
their commercial licenses will be suspended and they
will be banned from obtaining new employment visas.
Non-compliant companies will also be subject to fines
and/or imprisonment of their owners/managers for
labor code violations as provided by law.

In February 2003, the Ministry of Labor announced the
completion of a draft proposal expressly authorizing
the creation of labor and trade unions. Once
approved by the Cabinet, the Ministry plans to
establish a new department responsible for handling
matters related to unions. Groups of twenty or more
nationals working in a profession or trade will be
permitted to organize to protect their rights and
interests; foreign workers in the UAE for more than
six years will be allowed to join as associate
members but will not be permitted to vote or contest
elections. Organizations will be allowed to join
Arab or international trade unions and a UAE Unified
Labor Federation may be established.

The Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, Ministry of
Health, municipalities, and civil defense work
together to enforce health and safety standards, and
the Government requires every large industrial concern
to employ a certified occupational safety officer.

The Ministry of Information and Culture helped
increase public awareness with an extensive
information campaign in the English and Arabic press
about trafficking in boys for use as camel jockeys.
The information campaign was conducted in conjunction
with the announcement of the child camel jockey ban in
July 2002 and for months thereafter.

The Ministry of Interior oversaw the implementation
and enforcement of the child camel jockey ban in
coordination with local governments and police
departments. The Ministry of Interior also
spearheaded the inclusion of DNA testing as a part of
the camel jockey identification card issuance process.

The Ministry of Interior's Department of
Naturalization and Residency oversees the current
amnesty program. It worked closely with the Ministry
of Labor in designing the program and information-
gathering questionnaire to better monitor migration
patterns, including trafficking in persons.

In January 2003, Ministry of Interior officials
indicated that they continue to work on developing
channels to exchange information with other
governments on organized crime, including trafficking
in persons.
UAE labor laws do not cover domestic workers and
agricultural workers. Consequently, the Ministry of
Interior's Department of Naturalization and Residency
reviewed the contracts of foreign domestic employees
as part of residency permit processing to ensure that
the negotiated salaries and terms are adequate.

To guard against involuntary servitude, in January
2003, the UAEG announced new regulations requiring a
mandatory unified contract for domestic workers and
agricultural workers. The contract regulates the
employer-employee relationship and specifies rights
granted to the employee. The regulations provide that
the UAEG review the employer's ability to pay the
worker before the work permit is granted. The
regulations also provide that the worker may complain
of unified contract violations to the Ministry of
Labor's Labor Dispute Department.

In an effort to combat prostitution, the Dubai police
conduct special patrols in areas frequented by
prostitutes and the immigration and police forces use
special units to conduct raids and sting operations in
areas where prostitutes are known to frequent. In May
2002, the Ras Al-Khaimah Emirate police and
immigration authorities coordinated raids on several
massage parlors on tips that the parlors were centers
for prostitution. Law enforcement authorities state
that women arrested for prostitution are interviewed
to determine whether they might be victims of forced
prostitution or trafficking in persons. During the
interview, the officials reportedly ask the women how
they came to the UAE, who assisted them in traveling
here and where they have been staying while in the
UAE.

In April 2003, the Dubai Police Department will host
an FBI Organized Crime Undercover Operations training
program at the Middle East Law Enforcement Training
Center. Law enforcement officers representing all
local police departments are expected to attend.
This specialized training will help to combat
trafficking in persons to the UAE since organized
crime groups reportedly commit most trafficking
offenses.

In 2002, the Dubai Police Human Rights Department
conducted an outreach program to foreign missions to
advise of programs and services available to residents
and visitors. The Human Rights Department maintains
an Office of Social Services and Human Rights at
police stations throughout Dubai Emirate staffed with
human rights officers and social workers/counselors.
These officers are available to assist complainants
and victims, including victims of trafficking in
persons.

Two members of the Dubai Police Department, the Human
Rights Department Director and the Al Rashidiya Police
District Director, attended the State Department's
International Visitor Program on Trafficking in
Persons in June 2002. The Dubai Police Department
Human Rights Director also attended the February 2003
"Pathbreaking Strategies in the Global Fight Against
Sex Trafficking" Conference in Washington D.C.

In 2002, the Dubai Police Human Rights Department
Director developed a Crime Victims' Assistance
Program, which includes the creation of Victim
Assistance Coordinators and police training in victim
protection and assistance. In March 2003, Victim
Assistance Coordinators were assigned to police
stations. Victim Assistance Coordinators'
responsibilities include advising victims about the
criminal justice system and criminal procedure;
encouraging witness testimony, especially in cases
involving sexual abuse and trafficking in persons
where victims are reluctant to speak out; advising
victims of their rights; providing counseling and
medical care; placing victims in safehouses or
shelters; and following-up with victims as the case
proceeds to trial. In March 2003, the Dubai Police
Human Rights Department began conducting Victim
Protection and Assistance training courses for Dubai
police officers.
The Dubai Tourist Security Department operates a 24-
hour toll-free hotline telephone number to assist
visitors with inquiries or problems. The Department
publishes information on the hotline and precautionary
measures for visitors in a brochure that is
distributed at ports of entry and other locations.

The Women's Da'waa Administration in the Dubai
Department of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs also operates
a hotline geared for women and children. Operating
since July 2002, the hotline is open to all
nationalities living in all emirates. The hotline is
open from 8:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., Saturday to
Wednesday, but will take emergency calls on Thursday
and Friday (the UAE weekend).

-- C. Are there or have there been anti-trafficking
information or education campaigns? If yes, briefly
describe the campaign(s), including their objectives
and effectiveness.

The Ministry of Information and Culture helped
increase public awareness with an extensive
information campaign about trafficking in boys for use
as camel jockeys in conjunction with the announcement
of the child camel jockey ban in July 2002 and for
several months thereafter.

The local press highlights cases of child jockeys
rescued by local authorities and non-governmental
organizations. The local press also reports on cases
of forced prostitution. Some local newspapers include
regular columns with advice on worker rights.

-- D. Does the government support other programs to
prevent trafficking? (E.g., to promote women's
participation in economic decision making or efforts
to keep children in school.) Please explain.

In addition to government ministries and departments,
charitable and other organizations funded by the
Government and individual ruling family members are
also involved in programs that help to prevent
trafficking. The Government maintained its efforts to
address humanitarian needs and concerns in the UAE and
worldwide through government-funded charitable
organizations.

In the UAE, the primarily government-funded UAE Red
Crescent Authority, an affiliate of the
International Federation of the Red Cross and Red
Crescent Societies, among other activities,
provided assistance to widows, divorced women,
prisoners' wives, orphans, prisoners and students
from poor families. Projects funded by the Red
Crescent Authority include maintaining schools and
mosques, digging wells, building health units, and
training for people with special needs.

Outside the UAE, the UAE Red Crescent Authority and
other charitable organizations funded by individual
ruling family members, such as the Zayed Foundation
and the Mohammed Bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Humanitarian
and Charity Establishment, conducted humanitarian
relief projects and provided reconstruction and other
types of assistance to a number of countries
worldwide, including countries in the Middle East,
Eastern Europe, CIS, Russia, and Africa. UAE
President and Abu Dhabi Emirate Ruler Shaykh Zayed Bin
Sultan Al-Nahyan funds the Zayed Foundation. Shaykh
Mohammed Bin Rashid Al-Maktoum is the Crown Prince of
Dubai Emirate and UAE Minister of Defense.
Many of the countries that receive aid from UAE
charitable organizations are source countries or are
at risk of becoming source countries for trafficking
in persons because of poor socio-economic conditions.
These charitable projects are anti-trafficking in
nature because they help to support people and
communities vulnerable to trafficking. These
organizations fund a multitude of projects, including
providing food, clothing, construction equipment,
telecommunications equipment, heavy machinery,
electrical generators, transportation equipment,
vehicles, ambulances, medical supplies, and medicines;
paying government employees' and teachers' salaries;
providing financial aid to support orphans; conducting
demining projects; building roads, refugee camps,
homes, hospitals, schools and orphanages; operating
refugee camps and orphanages; and digging wells.

The UAE Red Crescent Authority conducts outreach
programs for displaced persons, focusing on women and
children. In 2002, the Authority also sponsored 4,645
orphans in Yemen, Iraq, Lebanon, Palestine, Somalia,
Jordan, Bosnia, Ghana, Indonesia, Albania, Kazakhstan,
Thailand, Mongolia and Ethiopia, at a cost of about
19.6 million dirhams (more than $5.4 million).

Countries or areas receiving assistance from UAE
organizations include Pakistan, Afghanistan,
Palestine, Chechnya, Sudan, Benin, Bangladesh,
Eritrea, Sudan, Kosovo, Yemen, Philippines, Niger,
Kazakhstan, Tanzania, Somalia, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon,
Jordan, Bosnia, Ghana, Indonesia, Albania, Thailand,
Mongolia, Ethiopia, Lebanon, Algeria, Ghana, Albania,
Macedonia, and Iran.

The UAEG cooperates with the office of the UN High
Commissioners for Refugees (UNHCR) and other
humanitarian organizations in assisting refugees. In
2000, UAE First Lady Shaykha Fatima bint Mubarak
established a Fund for Refugee Women to help refugee
women worldwide, which is managed by the UAE Red
Crescent Society in cooperation with UNHCR.

The UAEG also cooperates with Medecins Sans Frontieres
(Doctors Without Borders), which maintains offices in
the UAE.

-- E. Is the government able to support prevention
programs?

The government is able to and does support prevention
programs both in the UAE and in other countries. See
answers to 4.C and 4.D above.

-- F. What is the relationship between government
officials, NGOs, other relevant organizations and
other elements of civil society on the trafficking
issue?

The UAEG works with foreign embassies and source
country NGOs to provide shelter and assistance to
victims and facilitate their repatriation.

The Ministry of Labor works with ILO on various labor
issues. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently
considering UAE membership in the inter-governmental
International Organization for Migration (IOM).

-- G. Does the government adequately monitor its
borders? Does it monitor immigration and emigration
patterns for evidence of trafficking? Do law
enforcement agencies respond appropriately to such
evidence?

Reports indicate that the UAEG adequately monitors
its borders against illegal migration and smuggling.
The Armed Forces are responsible for guarding and
monitoring the UAE's coast and land borders. The
border guards also have the legal authority to stop
and inspect individuals at the border or point of
entry, especially if the there is suspicion of
illegal activity. In January 2002, the UAE began
erecting a 3-meter fence barrier along its land
border with Oman in an effort to curb smugglers and
illegal immigration.

The federal and emirate-level immigration authorities
are responsible for controlling the influx of people
at the country's international airports. In August
2002, the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service
conducted fraud intercept training at Dubai
International Airport to help immigration authorities
there better combat document fraud at that point of
entry into the UAE.

The authorities have recognized that illegal
immigration and the violation of residency laws,
whether involving women and children or not, is a
problem in the UAE. To that end, the Ministry of
Interior's Department if Naturalization and Residency
announced in 2000 the establishment of a central
operations room, including an integrated federal data
center to track the arrival and departure of
individuals in the Federation's seven emirates. The
UAEG has also instituted the use of retinal scans to
add biometrics identification information to its
databases. Biometrics information will help UAEG
authorities better monitor migration and combat
document fraud by visitors and illegal immigrants,
for example, the use of false names and birthdays in
passports and other identification papers.

In an effort to crack down on border infiltrators and
immigration violators, in January 2003 the UAEG began
a four-month amnesty program. The amnesty program,
from January through April 2003, allows persons who
have overstayed their visas or who entered the
country without visas to leave the country without
penalty of prosecution for immigration violations.

So that the UAEG can better monitor immigration
patterns, the UAEG is updating its immigration
databases with information received from a
questionnaire to be completed by all amnesty-seekers.
The questionnaire includes questions on how the
amnesty applicants arrived in the country, who
assisted them in coming and staying here, what they
have been doing and whether they have been working
while here, etc. Immigration officials indicate that
questionnaires containing information that suggests
criminal activity, including trafficking in persons,
are referred to law enforcement authorities for
investigation.

Labor Ministry officials indicate that they will use
statistical information received from the general
amnesty program to identify practices and trends that
violate the labor law or abuse workers so that they
can better manage the labor market and protect worker
rights.

Although the amnesty program is not designed
specifically to determine the extent or the magnitude
of the trafficking in persons to the UAE, UAEG
officials state that statistical analyses based on
amnesty program information will provide them with a
foundation to actively and effectively monitor
trafficking in persons and estimate the magnitude of
the problem.

-- H. Is there a mechanism for coordination and
communication between various agencies, such as a
multi-agency working group or a task force? Does the
government have an anti-trafficking in persons task
force? Does the government have a public corruption
task force?

In 2002, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs led and
directed inter-ministry coordination and
communication on trafficking in persons issues. In
February 2003, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
announced the creation of a UAE trafficking in
persons task force.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials state that the
Government is currently considering the best method
to institutionalize follow-up on monitoring and
combating trafficking in persons. One option under
consideration includes an office to coordinate and
follow-up on ministries' actions.

-- I. Does the government coordinate with or
participate in multinational or international working
groups or efforts to prevent, monitor, or control
trafficking?

In January 2003, Ministry of Interior officials
indicated that they continue to work on developing
channels with other governments to exchange
information on organized crime, including trafficking
in persons.

UAEG authorities reportedly cooperated with
authorities in Pakistan and Bangladesh to prevent and
control trafficking in boys to the UAE by stemming
the seizure and/or recruitment of these children at
the source. Law enforcement officials also reported
that they cooperate and work in coordination with
foreign NGOs and foreign governments on trafficking
in women cases.

Immigration authorities also work with foreign
embassies and consulates in the repatriation of
trafficking victims.

-- J. Does the government have a national plan of
action to address trafficking in persons? If so,
which agencies were involved in developing it? Were
NGOs consulted in the process? What steps has the
government taken to disseminate the action plan?

In 2002, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs led and
directed inter-ministry coordination and
communication on trafficking in persons issues. The
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, working in coordination
with other ministries and departments, created the
plan of action for the child camel jockey ban and
other measures related thereto.

In February 2003, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
announced the creation of a UAE trafficking in
persons task force. The task force reportedly will
be responsible for creating a formal national plan of
action regarding trafficking in persons for inter-
ministry action and follow-up.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs officials state that the
Government is currently considering the best method
to institutionalize follow-up on monitoring and
combating trafficking in persons. One option under
consideration includes an office to coordinate and
follow-up on ministries' actions.

-- K. Is there some entity or person responsible for
developing anti-trafficking programs within the
government?

See answer to 4.J. above.



5. Investigation and prosecution of traffickers:

(For questions a-c, posts should highlight in
particular whether or not the country has enacted any
new legislation since the last tip report.)

-- A. Does the country have a law specifically
prohibiting trafficking in persons? If so, what is
the law? If not, under what other laws can
traffickers be prosecuted? For example, are there
laws against slavery or the exploitation of
prostitution by means of coercion or fraud? Are these
other laws being used in trafficking cases? Are these
laws, taken together, adequate to cover the full scope
of trafficking in persons?

UAE Penal Law Art. 346 prohibits trafficking in
persons: "Whoever brings into or out of the country
any person intending to possess or dispose of and
whoever possesses or purchases or sells or offers for
sale or transacts in any manner of any person as a
slave shall be punished with provisional
imprisonment." Provisional imprisonment is a sentence
of 3 years minimum and 15 years maximum.

Justice Ministry officials indicate that traffickers
can also be prosecuted under penal laws, including
laws prohibiting kidnapping; rape; sodomy; sexual
abuse; sexual exploitation; immoral acts; exploitation
of someone for immoral acts; physical abuse; false
imprisonment; juvenile endangerment; forced labor;
child labor; forced prostitution; indecency;
enticement, inducement or deceiving someone to commit
immoral acts or prostitution; aiding or facilitating
the commission of immoral acts or prostitution;
keeping or operating a place for immoral acts or
prostitution; and money laundering.

Ministry of Labor officials also report that the UAE
Labor Law contains penalties for labor law violations.
UAE Labor Law Art. 181 provides for a fine from 3,000
dirhams (about $820) to 10,000 dirhams (about $2700)
and/or imprisonment up to six months per labor law
violation or for obstructing, preventing or
threatening labor inspectors.

UAE law appears to adequately cover the full scope of
trafficking in persons. Ministry of Justice
officials report that they are currently reviewing
U.S. trafficking in persons legislation and
evaluating current UAE laws to determine whether
there are gaps in existing legislation. If so,
Justice Ministry officials state that they will then
determine whether supplemental legislation will be
adequate or comprehensive trafficking in persons
legislation will be necessary.

-- B. What is the penalty for traffickers?

UAE Penal Law Art. 346 provides for imprisonment from
3 years minimum to 15 years maximum.

-- C. What are the penalties for rape or forcible
sexual assault? How do they compare to the penalty
for trafficking?

The sentencing range for rape is 15 years plus
lashings to capital punishment. The penalty for rape
that leads to the death of the victim or for rape
with extenuating circumstances is capital punishment.

-- D. Has the government prosecuted any cases against
traffickers? If yes, provide numbers of arrests,
indictments, plea bargains, fines, and convictions.
What were the penalties actually imposed in each case?
Are the traffickers serving the time sentenced? If
no, why not? Please indicate whether the government
can provide this information, and if not, why not?

Law enforcement officials claim that cases have been
prosecuted under the penal laws prohibiting
trafficking and related crimes. UAEG officials are
attempting to compile statistics on arrests,
prosecutions, and convictions. We will forward this
information immediately when it is received.

-- E. Is there any information or reports of who is
behind the trafficking? For example, are the
traffickers freelance operators, small crime groups,
and/or large international organized crime syndicates?
Are employment, travel, and tourism agencies or
marriage brokers fronting for traffickers or crime
groups to traffic individuals? Are government
officials involved? Are there any reports of where
profits from trafficking in persons are being
channeled? (E.g. armed groups, terrorist
organizations, judges, banks, etc.)

IOM and NGO reports indicate that organized crime
groups are behind most if not all trafficking cases to
the UAE, with the typical size of the organized crime
group varying according to the source country.

-- F. Does the government actively investigate cases
of trafficking? (Again, the focus should be on
trafficking cases versus migrant smuggling cases.)
Does the government use active investigative
techniques in trafficking in persons investigations?
To the extent possible under domestic law, are
techniques such as electronic surveillance, undercover
operations, and mitigated punishment or immunity for
cooperating suspects used by the government? Does the
criminal procedure code or other laws prohibit the
police from engaging in covert operations?

Law enforcement officials report that they actively
investigate cases of trafficking in persons.
Investigation is most easily accomplished in cases
brought to their attention by complaint from the
victim or other interested party. Police officials
state that trafficking in persons investigations are
challenging when trafficking is suspected but the
victim refuses to provide information, likely out of
fear or distress.

Police officials also report that active investigative
techniques are used in criminal investigations,
including trafficking in persons cases, and that
electronic surveillance and undercover operations are
permitted and used. Police officials recommend
sentence mitigation for cooperating suspects and are
not prohibited from engaging in covert operations.

-- G. Does the government provide any specialized
training for government officials in how to recognize,
investigate, and prosecute instances of trafficking?

On several occasions over the past year, the senior
leadership requested information on training
opportunities that specifically address combating
trafficking in persons, to help law enforcement,
prosecutors and judges better identify, investigate
and prosecute cases of trafficking in persons. After
receiving information on USG training classes in
February, Post presented the information to the
Office of the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs,
which forwarded the information to the Ministry of
Interior and Ministry of Justice for review.

Ministry of Justice officials report that the
Ministry's Institute of Judicial Training and Studies
conducts mandatory classes for prosecutors and judges
on proper victim care and assistance. The Institute
also conducts mandatory specialized classes (with
course duration in parentheses) on the following
topics: human rights (14 hours); sexual offenses (20
hours); offenses against life (20 hours); immigration
offenses (20 hours); juvenile protection and
delinquency (30 hours); labor violations and offenses
(12 hours).

In April 2003, the Dubai Police Department will host
an FBI Organized Crime Undercover Operations training
program at the Middle East Law Enforcement Training
Center. Law enforcement officers representing all
local police departments are expected to attend.
This specialized training will help to combat
trafficking in persons to the UAE since organized
crime groups reportedly commit most if not all
trafficking offenses.

-- H. Does the government cooperate with other
governments in the investigation and prosecution of
trafficking cases? If possible, can post provide the
number of cooperative international investigations on
trafficking?

UAEG officials state that they cooperate with
authorities in Pakistan and Bangladesh to prevent and
control trafficking in boys to the UAE by stemming
the seizure and/or recruitment of these children at
the source. Law enforcement officials report that
they also cooperate and work in coordination with
foreign NGOs and foreign governments on trafficking
in women issues when cases are brought to their
attention.

Immigration authorities work with foreign embassies
and consulates and foreign NGOs in repatriation
cases.

In January 2003, Ministry of Interior officials
indicated that they continue to work on developing
channels with foreign governments to exchange
information on organized crime, including trafficking
in persons.

-- I. Does the government extradite persons who are
charged with trafficking in other countries? If so,
can post provide the number of traffickers extradited?
Does the government extradite its own nationals
charged with such offenses? If not, is the government
prohibited by law from extraditing its own nationals?
If so, what is the government doing to modify its laws
to permit the extradition of nationals?

The UAEG currently has extradition treaties with a
number of countries, including India, Sri Lanka,
Armenia, Canada (for drugs and money-laundering
charges), China, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Algeria,
Morocco, Syria, Somalia, Jordan and Egypt. Between
1997-2001, 253 suspected criminals were extradited
from the UAE and 96 suspected criminals were
extradited to the UAE. In some cases, extradition was
performed to and from countries with which the UAEG
does not currently have an extradition treaty.

In June 2002, UAEG authorities announced that the UAEG
was discussing extradition treaties with Pakistan,
Russia, France, Germany, Australia, South Africa and
Yemen. In December 2002, the UAEG presented a
proposed draft extradition treaty to the USG for
consideration. In March 2003, UAE-Azerbaijan treaty
negotiations were announced.

The UAEG also has mutual legal assistance treaties in
criminal matters with a number of countries. In June
2002, UAEG authorities stated that the UAEG had
delivered 235 files of criminal case documents to
other countries and had received 145 files of criminal
case documents from other countries. In some cases,
mutual legal assistance was exchanged with countries
with which the UAEG does not currently have a mutual
legal assistance treaty. The USG and UAEG have
exchanged mutual legal assistance treaty documents and
will likely commence treaty negotiations this year.

To our knowledge, the UAEG has not requested
extradition or granted extradition in a case of
trafficking in persons. Based on the UAEG's record on
extradition and mutual legal assistance in criminal
matters, it is expected that the UAEG would request or
grant extradition and mutual legal assistance in
trafficking in persons cases.

UAEG extradition of a UAE citizen to another country
is unlikely absent extenuating circumstances. For
example, there is reportedly a clause in the UAE-India
extradition treaty, included at the UAEG's request,
wherein both nations agreed not to extradite their own
nationals to the other.

-- J. Is there evidence of government involvement in
or tolerance of trafficking, on a local or
institutional level? If yes, please explain in
detail.

There is no evidence of government involvement or
tolerance of trafficking, whether on a local or
institutional level.

-- K. If government officials are involved in
trafficking, what steps has the government taken to
end such participation? Have any government officials
been prosecuted for involvement in trafficking or
trafficking-related corruption? Have any been
convicted? What actual sentence was imposed? Please
provide specific numbers, when available.
There have been no cases reported of government
officials involved in trafficking. Based on previous
cases of investigation and prosecution of government
officials for criminal offenses, it is expected that
the UAEG would investigate and prosecute government
officials suspected of trafficking or trafficking-
related corruption.

-- L. Has the government signed and ratified the
following international instruments? Please provide
the date of signature/ratification if appropriate.



A. ILO Convention 182 Concerning the Prohibition and
Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst
Forms of Child Labor?

The UAEG ratified ILO Convention 182 Concerning Worst
Forms of Child Labor on 28 June 2001.



B. ILO Conventions 29 and 105 on Forced or Compulsory
Labor

The UAEG ratified ILO Convention 29 Concerning Forced
Labor on 27 May 1982.

The UAEG ratified ILO Convention 105 Concerning
Abolition of Forced Labor on 24 February 1997.



C. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights
of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child
Prostitution, and Child Pornography?

The UAEG ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of
the Child on 3 January 1997, but has not ratified its
supplemental Option Protocol on the Sale of Children,
Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography.



D. The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish
Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children,
Supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational
Organized Crime?

The UAE acceded to the UN Convention Against
Transnational Organized Crime in December 2002.
Justice Ministry officials report that the UAE has
reviewed and will likely sign the following
supplemental protocols in the near future: (1) the
Supplemental Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish
Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and
Children; and (2) the Supplemental Protocol Against
the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, See and Air.



E. Other

The UAEG has also ratified or acceded to the following
international instruments that help directly or
indirectly guard against trafficking in persons.
(Note: Date of ratification or accession in
parentheses. End note.)

--UN International Convention on the Elimination of
All Forms of Racial Discrimination (acceded 20 June
1974).

--Convention Against Slavery (ratification date
unknown).

--ILO Convention 1 Concerning Hours of Work for
Industry (ratified 27 May 1982).
--ILO Convention 81 Concerning Labor Inspection
(ratified 27 May 1982).
--ILO Revised Convention 89 Concerning Night Work for
Women (ratified 27 May 1982).

--ILO Convention 100 Concerning Equal Remuneration
(ratified 24 February 1997).

--ILO Convention 111 Concerning Discrimination in
Employment and Occupation (ratified 28 June 2001).

--ILO Convention 138 Concerning Minimum Age for
Employment (ratified 2 October 1998).



6. Protection and Assistance to Victims:

-- A. Does the government assist victims, for
example, by providing temporary to permanent residency
status, relief from deportation, shelter and access to
legal, medical and psychological services? If yes,
please explain. Does the country have victim care and
victim health care facilities? If so, can post
provide the number of victims placed in these care
facilities?

The Government provides assistance and protection to
victims, including victims of trafficking in persons.
Counseling services are available in public hospitals.
Authorities have worked with embassies and NGOs to
provide shelter facilities. Victims may also seek
shelter in their embassies. Police Departments also
reportedly provide shelter facilities for victims
separate and apart from jail facilities. Those
sheltered in police facilities receive free medical
care.

UAE Code of Criminal Procedures Arts. 14 and 22
provide for legal assistance for victims.

The following victim protection and assistance
services in Dubai Emirate are particularly notable
because almost all women traveling to the UAE for
purposes of prostitution, whether forced or otherwise,
reportedly travel to Dubai.

Each Dubai police station is staffed with a human
rights officer and a social worker/counselor from
Dubai Police's Human Rights Department. These
officers and social workers/counselors are available
to assist complainants and victims.

In 2002, the Dubai Police Human Rights Department
developed a Crime Victims' Assistance Program, which
includes the creation of Victim Assistance
Coordinators and police training in victim protection
and assistance. In March 2003, Victim Assistance
Coordinators were assigned to police stations. Victim
Assistance Coordinators' responsibilities include
advising victims about the criminal justice system and
criminal procedure; encouraging witness testimony,
especially in cases like sexual abuse and trafficking
in persons where victims are reluctant to speak out;
advising victims of their rights; providing counseling
and medical care; placement in a safehouse or shelter;
and follow-up with victims as the case proceeds to
trial.

The Dubai Tourist Security Department operates a 24-
hour toll-free hotline telephone number to assist
visitors with inquiries or problems. The Department
publishes information on the hotline and precautionary
measures for visitors in a brochure that is
distributed at ports of entry and other locations.

The Women's Da'waa Administration in the Dubai
Department of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs also operates
a hotline especially geared for women and children.
Operating since July 2002, the hotline is open to all
nationalities living in all emirates. The hotline is
open from 8:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., Saturday to
Wednesday, but will take emergency calls on Thursday
and Friday (the UAE weekend).

-- B. Does the government provide funding or other
forms of support to foreign or domestic NGOs for
services to victims? Please explain.

The Government works with foreign NGOs to provide
assistance to trafficking victims. We are unaware of
whether the Government provides direct financial
assistance to these NGOs.

-- C. Are the rights of victims respected, or are
they also treated as criminals? Are victims detained,
jailed, or deported? If detained or jailed, for how
long? Are victims fined? Are victims prosecuted for
violations of other laws, such as those governing
immigration or prostitution?

Rights of victims are generally respected.
Individuals identified as victims are not detained,
jailed or deported. Individuals identified as
victims are also not prosecuted for violations of
other laws, such as those governing immigration or
prostitution, if commission of such offenses is
determined to have occurred beyond their control,
which would be the case for most trafficking victims.
For example, law enforcement officials state that
they would not prosecute a victim of forced
prostitution for prostitution. And, immigration
officials indicate that victims would not be
prosecuted for immigration violations if, for
example, they overstayed in the country illegally
because a trafficker had seized their passports.

-- D. Does the government encourage victims to assist
in the investigation and prosecution of trafficking?
May victims file civil suits or seek legal action
against the traffickers? Does anyone impede the
victims' access to such legal redress? If a victim is
a material witness in a court case against the former
employer, is the victim permitted to obtain other
employment or to leave the country? Is there a victim
restitution program?

Law enforcement officials report that they advise
victims of their rights and encourage witness
testimony, especially in cases like sexual abuse and
trafficking in persons where victims are reluctant to
speak out.

Before or during a criminal trial, a victim may claim
financial compensation or "diya", which is granted as
part of defendant's sentence. Victims may also file
civil suits for damages.

Foreign diplomats indicate that victims have been
permitted to give sworn testimony and leave the
country before judgment was rendered.

-- E. What kind of protections is the government able
to provide for victims and witnesses? Does it provide
these protections in practice?

The government is able to provide protections for
victims and witnesses.

UAE Code of Criminal Procedures Arts. 14 and 22
provide for legal assistance for victims.

Authorities have worked with embassies and NGOs to
provide shelter facilities. Victims may also seek
shelter from their embassies. Police Departments
also reportedly provide shelter facilities for
victims separate and apart from jail facilities.

-- F. Does the government provide any specialized
training for government officials in recognizing
trafficking and in the provision of assistance to
trafficked victims, including the special needs of
trafficked children? Does the government provide
training on protections and assistance to its
embassies and consulates in foreign countries that are
destination or transit countries? Does it urge those
embassies and consulates to develop ongoing
relationships with NGOs that serve trafficked victims?

The UAEG senior leadership has repeatedly requested
information on training opportunities that
specifically address combating trafficking in
persons, to help law enforcement officials,
prosecutors and judges better identify, investigate
and prosecute trafficking in persons cases. After
receiving information on USG training opportunities
in February 2003, Post presented the information to
the Office of the Minister of State for Foreign
Affairs, which forwarded the information to the
Ministry of Interior and Ministry of Justice for
consideration.

Ministry of Justice officials report that the
Ministry's Institute of Judicial Training and Studies
conducts mandatory classes for prosecutors and judges
on proper victim care and assistance. The Institute
also conducts mandatory specialized classes (with
course duration in parentheses) on the following
topics: human rights (14 hours); sexual offenses (20
hours); offenses against life (20 hours); immigration
offenses (20 hours); juvenile protection and
delinquency (30 hours); labor violations and offenses
(12 hours).

In March 2003, the Dubai Police Human Rights
Department began conducting Victim Protection and
Assistance training courses for Dubai police officers
as part of the new Dubai Police Department's Victims'
Assistance Program.

-- G. Does the government provide assistance, such as
medical aid, shelter, or financial help, to its
repatriated nationals who are victims of trafficking?

We are not aware of any instances in which UAE
nationals were trafficked. Considering the UAEG's
record of numerous services provided to citizens at
little to no cost, it is expected that the UAEG would
provide generous assistance to repatriated UAE
nationals who are victims of trafficking.

-- H. Which NGOs, if any, work with trafficking
victims? What type of services do they provide? What
sort of cooperation do they receive from local
authorities?

The Government cooperates and coordinates with NGOs
in providing assistance to trafficking victims. For
example, Abu Dhabi police officials have worked with
the Pakistan-based Ansar Burney Foundation, a non-
governmental organization dedicated to improving
human rights in South Asia, in providing shelter to
and assisting in the repatriation of rescued children
brought to the UAE to work as camel jockeys.

WAHBA